• Biology,  Botony

    Symbiosis

    A symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Symbioses may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually. Obligate symbioses are often evolved over a long period of time, while facultative symbioses may be more modern, behavioral adaptions; given time, facultative symbioses may evolve into obligate symbioses. Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship, occurring when one of…

  • Biology,  Q & A

    What Would Happen If All the Bees Died?

    There are about 20,000 species of bees in the world, and they are probably the most important insect pollinators. The thousands of bee species have unique flight patterns and floral preferences, and many have coevolved with flowers in such a way that their body sizes and behaviors almost perfectly complement the flowers they pollinate. Sadly, bees of all types are in decline worldwide, as are many other insects. The familiar honeybee has suffered greatly from colony collapse disorder, in which hives suddenly lose their adult members. Populations of bumblebees and other solitary bees have steeply declined in many places, largely because of insecticide and herbicide use, habitat loss, and global…

  • Biology,  Botony,  MCQ

    MCQs ON KINGDOM MONERA

    1. Which one belongs to monera? (a) Amoeba (b) Escherichia (c) Gelidium (d) Spirogyra. Answer and Explanation: 1. (b): All prokaryotic organisms comes under Kingdom monera. Escherichia coli is a bacteria. Monera includes bacteria, mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria (blue green alga) and actinomycetes. 2. The main difference in Gram (+) ve and Gram (-) ve bacteria resides in their (a) cell wall (b) cell membrane (c) cytoplasm (d) flagella. Answer and Explanation: 2. (a): Danish bacteriologists Christian Gram for the first time classified bacteria on the basis of the cell wall into two groups – gram +ve and gram -ve by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Gram +ve cell walls are less complex…

  • Biology,  Botony

    MCQ ON PLANT REPRODUCTION

    1. Formation of gametophyte directly from sporophyte without meiosis is (a) apospory (b) apogamy (c) parthenogenesis (d) amphimixis. Answer and Explanation: 1. (a): Formation of gametophyte directly from sporophyte without meiosis and spore formation is apospory. The gametophyte has a diploid number of chromosomes such gametophyte may form viable gametes which fuse to form tetraploid sporophyte. Apogamy is the development of sporophyte directly from gametophytic tissue without fusion of gametes. Amphimixis is normal sexual reproduction. Parthenogenesis is the development of an embryo from an egg without fertilization. 2. Parthenogenesis is (a) development of an embryo without fertilization (b) development of fruit without fertilization (c) development of fruit without hormones (d) development of…

  • Genetics,  Q & A

    Q & A ON MENDEL’S LAW

    1. Who was Gregor Mendel? Mendel is considered the father of genetics. He was a monk, biologist and botanist born in Austria in 1822 and who died in 1884. During the years 1853 to 1863, he cultivated pea plants in the gardens of his monastery to be used in his research. His experiments consisted of crossing pea plants with distinct characteristics (size, seed color, etc.), cataloging the results and interpreting them. The experiments led him to develop his laws, results published in 1886 with no scientific repercussions at that time. Only at the beginning of the 20th century, in 1902, 18 years after his death, were his achievements broadly recognized.…

  • Biochemistry,  Q & A

    Q & A ON CELL RESPIRATION

    1. How do cells obtain the energy they need to function? Cells obtain energy for their metabolic reactions from breaking down organic molecules with a high energy content. This energy is mostly stored as ATP molecules. The process of obtaining energy in order to produce ATP molecules is called cellular respiration. 2. What compound is phosphorylated for ATP formation? What is the resulting compound when ATP releases energy? ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is formed after the binding of one phosphate molecule (phosphorylation) to one ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule. This is a process that stores energy in the produced ATP molecule. When ATP provides energy to the cellular metabolism, it releases…

  • Biology,  Human anatomy

    What is the function of Earwax in the Human Body?

    The earwax is very useful substance which keeps our ears healthy and is produced naturally in the ear. This wax is found not only in humans, but also in animals. It cleans, protects and lubricates the ears. Let us study through this article about earwax, its function etc. Important facts about Earwax 1. The scientific name of the earwax is cerumen. It is formed in the outer part of our ear canal where there are thousands of glands. It is sticky and shiny substance. It coats the ear to moisturize it and fight against infection.2. Earwax also prevents from dust, dirt, and insects from entering the ear.3. It also works like a natural antibiotic,…

  • Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biochemistry

    MCQs ON PLANT KINGDOM

    1. Sexual reproduction involving the fusion of two cells in Chlamydomonas is (a) isogamy (b) homogamy (c) somatogamy (d) hologamy Answer and Explanation: 1. (d): Isogamy involves the fusion of gametes which are morphologically and physiologically similar. They are called isogametes. In Chlamydomonas, two vegetative cells may fuse to form a zygospore and the phenomenon is called as hologamy. As a result of fusion of two gametes, zygospore is formed. 2. Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization. It is (a) apospory (b) apogamy (c) parthenocarpy (d) parthenogenesis. Answer and Explanation: 2. (b): Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization. This phenomenon is called apogamy. Development…

  • Biology,  Q & A,  Zoology

    Explain the excretory system in insects?

    Excretion Excretion is the process whereby an organism eliminates metabolic wastes and unwanted chemicals from its system. Metabolism is  the sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the cells and body. Some products of these metabolic reactions are toxic  and so must be processed or eliminated from the body. Others are simply materials that are present in excess and so must be  eliminated as waste. The process of excretion is quite different to defecation, which is the removal of undigested food wastes from  the gut. However, the gut of many animals also has a role in excretion as some materials may be excreted into the gut and  eliminated…

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