• A level biology,  Biology,  Cell biology

    Animal Cell

    All animal cells are multicellular. They are eukaryotic cells. Animal cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and it contains the nucleus and organelles that are membrane-bound. Unlike the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells do not have a cell wall. This feature was lost in the distant past by the single-celled organisms that gave rise to the kingdom Animalia. Animal cells are of various sizes and have irregular shapes. Most of the cells size range between 1 and 100 micrometers and are visible only with the microscope. Trillions of cells are found in the human body. There are many different types of cells, approximately 210 distinct cell types…

  • Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. Transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which forms the final path for electron…

  • Cell biology

    ANIMAL TISSUE

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Genetics

    WHAT IS DNA?

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA is a nucleic acid; alongside proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids compose the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. DNA  stores instructions for making other large molecules, called proteins. These instructions are stored inside each of your cells, distributed among 46 long structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are made up of thousands of shorter segments of DNA, called genes. Each gene stores the directions for making protein fragments, whole proteins, or multiple specific proteins. DNA is well-suited to…

  • Cell biology,  MCQ

    HOMEOSTASIS

    Q1) The relationship between mineral and water is know as: A) Ascent of sap B) Osmoregulation C) Excretion D) All of them Q2) The cell sap having solution of: A) One types B) Two types C) Three types D) Four types Q3) The water potential not more than: A) 1 B) 100 C) 1000 D) 10 Q4) The shrinkage of protoplasm is know as: A) Normal B) Turgid C) Plasmolysis D) Deplasrnolysid  Q5) The homeostasis means: A) Osmoregulation B) Excretion C) Both of these D) None of these Q6) In plant temperature maintained by: A) Osmosis B) Diffusion C) Inhibitions D) Transpiration Q7) Transpiration is take place through: A) Stomata…

  • Cell biology,  MCQ

    EXCRETION

    Q1) Unwanted substances excreted by plants are: A) Uric acid B) Ammonia C) Latex D) Urea Q2) Solid crystalline substance called uric acid excreted as Solid waste in: A) Insects B) Planty helminthes C) Vertebrates D) Annelids Q3) Nephrons are connected with: A) Respiratory system B) Nervous system C) Circulatory system D) Excretory system Q4) Which of  the following substance is completely reabsorbed from the filtrate in the renal tubule under the normal condition: A) Glucose B) Urea C) Water D) Salt Q5) The flame cell system is found in: A) Cockroach B) Earthworm C) Planaria D) Vertebrates Q6) Conical Projections in the I.S of kidney’s is called: A) Nephrons B)…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

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