• Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Q & A

    What is the function of the cell membrane?

    The cell membrane is otherwise called a Plasma membrane. It may be defined as the thin, elastic, semipermeable living membrane that serves as a boundary for the Cytoplasm. The Cell membrane is made up of glycoproteins and phospholipids. The Functions of the Cell membrane are as follows: Cell membrane or Plasma membrane is a semipermeable membrane present around the Protoplasm. It acts as a boundary to the cell. It gives a definite shape to the Cell. It gives Mechanical support to the Cell. It protects cell contents. It regulates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell. The Sites for cell recognition are located on the surface of the Plasma…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. Transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which forms the final path for electron…

  • Cell biology

    ANIMAL TISSUE

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Cell biology,  MCQ

    HOMEOSTASIS

    Q1) The relationship between mineral and water is know as: A) Ascent of sap B) Osmoregulation C) Excretion D) All of them Q2) The cell sap having solution of: A) One types B) Two types C) Three types D) Four types Q3) The water potential not more than: A) 1 B) 100 C) 1000 D) 10 Q4) The shrinkage of protoplasm is know as: A) Normal B) Turgid C) Plasmolysis D) Deplasrnolysid  Q5) The homeostasis means: A) Osmoregulation B) Excretion C) Both of these D) None of these Q6) In plant temperature maintained by: A) Osmosis B) Diffusion C) Inhibitions D) Transpiration Q7) Transpiration is take place through: A) Stomata…

  • Cell biology,  MCQ

    EXCRETION

    Q1) Unwanted substances excreted by plants are: A) Uric acid B) Ammonia C) Latex D) Urea Q2) Solid crystalline substance called uric acid excreted as Solid waste in: A) Insects B) Planty helminthes C) Vertebrates D) Annelids Q3) Nephrons are connected with: A) Respiratory system B) Nervous system C) Circulatory system D) Excretory system Q4) Which of  the following substance is completely reabsorbed from the filtrate in the renal tubule under the normal condition: A) Glucose B) Urea C) Water D) Salt Q5) The flame cell system is found in: A) Cockroach B) Earthworm C) Planaria D) Vertebrates Q6) Conical Projections in the I.S of kidney’s is called: A) Nephrons B)…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    ENZYMES

    The global life depends on a series of chemical reactions. Most of the chemical reactions proceed too slowly on their own to sustain life. Hence catalysts are required to greatly accelerate the rates of these chemical reactions. In nature enzymes posses the catalytic power to facilitate life processes in essentially all life-forms from viruses to man. Most of the enzymes retain their catalytic potential even after extraction from the living organism. The above catalytic power of enzyme leads to commercial usage of enzymes. In ancient days enzymes are used in manufacture of cheeses, breads, and alcoholic beverages, and for the tenderizing of meats. Today enzymes are also of fundamental interest…

  • Cell biology

    THE CELL AND CELL THEORY

    Landmarks in the study of a cell Soon after Anton Van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope, Robert Hooke in 1665 observed a piece of cork under the microscope and found it to be made of small compartments which he called “cells” (Latin cell = small room). In 1672, Leeuwenhoek observed bacteria, sperms and red blood corpuscles, all of which were cells. Much later, in 1831, Robert Brown, an Englishman observed that all cells had a centrally positioned body which he termed the nucleus. The cell theory In 1838 M.J. Schleiden and Theodore Schwann formulated the “cell theory.” Which maintains that: all organisms are composed of cells. cell is the structural and…

  • Biology,  Cell biology

    WHAT IS CELL?

    [vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]The cell (meaning “small room”) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. All living organisms are made up of building blocks we call the cell. Many living things consist of vast numbers of cells working in concert with one another. A number of cells in an organism varies. The cell is surrounded by a cell or plasma membrane. which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cell consists of different organelles like cell nucleus, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, centrosome, Vacuoles, Ribosome. In some organ­isms, the body is made up of many cells (multicellular) while in others it is made up of a single…

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