• Biology,  Zoology

    Phylum Protozoa

    Protos—first, Zoan—animal, First animal phylum Study of protozoans called Protozoology Father of protozoology – Antony von Leeuwenhoek Term Protozoa was assigned by Goldfuss Protozoa belong to Kingdom Protista of Haeckel Single-celled, solitary or colonial, eukaryotes Important characters Size ranges from 1µ to 5000µ Aquatic – freshwater or marine forms, or endoparasites Grade of organization– protoplasmic or subcellular Locomotion by cilia, flagella or pseudopodia, or absent Skeleton – may or may not be present; if present then either calcareous or siliceous. Foraminifers have external shell of CaCO3 ( ex. Polystomella), whereas Radiolarians have internal plates of silica Osmoregulation by contractile vacuole in freshwater protozoans (isotonic to 0.8 % NaCl solution). C.V.…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Kingdom

    Animal Kingdom covers about 35-phyla, of which 11 are considered to be major phyla. In major phyla, 10 are from Non-chordates and 1 from chordates. The 11-major phyla are – Phylum Protozoa: single-celled (solitary or colonial)Eukaryotes Phylum Porifera: Sponges Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfishes and sea anemones Phylum Ctenophora*: Comb jellies Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flat warms Phylum Aschelminthes: Roundworms or threadworms. Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms (Earthworm, Leech etc.) Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed legged-invertebrates Phylum Mollusca: Snails, bivalves, octopus etc. Phylum Echinodermata: Seastar, Brittle star, Sea lily etc. Phylum Chordata: Protochordates and vertebrates (*As Ctenophora includes less than 100 species, it is generally considered as a Minor Phylum with Rotifera, Phoronida, Brachiopoda and Gastrotricha etc.).…

  • Human anatomy

    EXCRETORY SYSTEM IN HUMAN

    Except for urinary bladder which is endodermal in origin, the whole excretory system is Except urinary bladder which is endodermal in origin, the whole excretory system is Except mesodermal. In human the kidney is retroperitoneal i.e., the kidney is located outside the coelomic cavity and is covered by peritoneum (coelomic epithelium) from the ventral side only. The size of each kidney is ~10 cm and it weighs is ~150 g. The two kidneys are asymmetrical, the Rt. being posterior to the Lt. Each kidney is bean-shaped with a groove (hilus) in the middle. The hilus is absent in frog’s kidney. The white fibrous connective tissue-covering around kidney is called renal…

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    Human anatomy

    Urine Formation

    3−steps are involved in the formation of urine A) Ultra filtration It is filtration under pressure. Glomerular capillary pressure (45 mm of Hg) favours filtration. The Colloidal osmotic pressure (due to plasma proteins, particularly albumin) acts against filteration. Its value is ~20 mm of Hg. The Capsular filtrate pressure, due to the glomerular filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule, also acts against filtration. Its value is ~10 mm of Hg. Net filtration pressure = 45 − (20+10) mm of Hg = 15 mm of Hg or 10 − 20 mm of Hg. Only 1/5 of plasma (20%) gets filtered from glomerulus per unit time. It is about 125 ml per minute.…

  • Human anatomy

    An overview of Pituitary Gland

    It is called master gland (master of endocrine orchestra) as it regulates the functioning of other endocrine glands like thyroid, Adrenal cortex, testes and ovaries etc. However, the secretions of pancreas, thymus and pineal body are not regulated by the hormones of the pituitary. Pituitary is a single or unpaired gland weighing about 0.5 gm. It is present in the ‘Sella tursica’ cavity of Basi-sphenoid bone and is attached to the floor of Diencephalon (hypothalamus) of forebrain through a stalk called Infundibulum. As it is present below diencephalon of fore-brain it is also known as Hypophysis cerebri. In mammals, it is ectodermal in origin. It consists of two-parts – (1)…

  • Biology

    FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM

    In this lesson, we discussing five kingdom classification. Five kingdom classification is proposed by R.H.Whittaker in 1969. the kingdom defined by him were named Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In this lesson, we show a brief introduction to these kingdoms for more information on kingdom please visit a particular lesson on that kingdom. Main Criteria used for this classification are cell structure, thallus organization, mode of nutrients, reproduction and phylogenetic relationship. Besides these major characteristics, he has also given importance to characters of ecological role-played and mode of reproduction. Major criteria on which five-kingdom classification is based Criterion Kingdom Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Cell type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic…

  • Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Biology,  Botony

    Symbiosis

    A symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Symbioses may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually. Obligate symbioses are often evolved over a long period of time, while facultative symbioses may be more modern, behavioral adaptions; given time, facultative symbioses may evolve into obligate symbioses. Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship, occurring when one of…

  • Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biochemistry

    MCQs ON PLANT KINGDOM

    1. Sexual reproduction involving the fusion of two cells in Chlamydomonas is (a) isogamy (b) homogamy (c) somatogamy (d) hologamy Answer and Explanation: 1. (d): Isogamy involves the fusion of gametes which are morphologically and physiologically similar. They are called isogametes. In Chlamydomonas, two vegetative cells may fuse to form a zygospore and the phenomenon is called as hologamy. As a result of fusion of two gametes, zygospore is formed. 2. Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization. It is (a) apospory (b) apogamy (c) parthenocarpy (d) parthenogenesis. Answer and Explanation: 2. (b): Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization. This phenomenon is called apogamy. Development…

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