• Biology,  environmental science

    POND AS AN EXAMPLE OF AN ECOSYSTEM

    A pond is an example of a complete, closed and an independent ecosystem. It is convenient to study its basic structure and functions. It works on solar energy and maintains its biotic community in equilibrium. If you collect a glass full of pond water or a scoop full of pond bottom mud, it consists of a mixture of plants, animals, inorganic and organic materials. Following components are found in a pond ecosystem. (A) Abiotic components Light: Solar radiation provides energy that controls the entire system. Penetration of light depends on the transparency of water, amount of dissolved or suspended particles in water and the number of plankton. On the basis…

  • Biology,  environmental science

    ECOSYSTEM

    Several communities of organisms live together and interact with each other as well as with their physical environment as an ecological unit. We call it an ecosystem. The term ‘ecosystem’ was coined by A.G. Tansley in 1935. An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature encompassing complex interaction between its biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components. For example- a pond is a good example of the ecosystem. Components of an ecosystem Components of ecosystem: They are broadly grouped into:- (a) Abiotic and (b) Biotic components A) Abiotic components (Nonliving): The abiotic component can be grouped into following three categories:- Physical factors: Sunlight, temperature, rainfall, humidity and pressure. They sustain and limit…

  • Biology,  environmental science

    Acid Rain

    Although the phenomenon of “acid rain” (more correctly acid deposition) was identified in Manchester, England, as long ago as 1852, and described more thoroughly in 1872, modern scientific research has been going on only since the mid-1950s. Public concern about the problem began in the late 1960s. Acid rain is an environmental hazard that is transponder in nature. Northeastern America, North Western Europe and India are facing an acute problem of acid rain. Acid rain has affected certain rivers, lakes, streams and forests in United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), Germany and many other countries. Acid rain literally means ‘the presence of excessive acids in rain waters’. Acid…

  • Biology,  environmental science

    The Water Cycle

    water cycle: a continuous pattern in nature in which water moves as it changes state above, on, and below the surface of Earth. Water is the only substance that exists on Earth in each of its three states. Water easily changes from one state to another. Water sometimes changes its location by changing state in a continuous pattern called the water cycle. The water cycle is self-renewing and constant. The Sun provides the energy to power the water cycle. Changes of State When water changes state in the water cycle, the total number of water particle remains the same. The changes of a state include melting, sublimation, evaporation, freezing, condensation,…

  • environmental science

    AIR POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL

    Pollution is now a common place term, that our ears are attuned to. We hear about the various forms of pollution and read about it through the mass media. Air pollution is one such form that refers to the contamination of the air, irrespective of indoors or outside. A physical, biological or chemical alteration to the air in the atmosphere can be termed as pollution. It occurs when any harmful gases, dust, smoke enters the atmosphere and makes it difficult for plants, animals and humans to survive as the air becomes dirty. Air pollution can further be classified into two sections- Visible air pollution and invisible air pollution. Another way…

  • environmental science

    Natural Resources

    Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include air, water, soil, minerals, along with the climate and solar energy, which form the non-living or ‘abiotic’ part of nature. The ‘biotic’ or living parts of nature consists of plants and animals, including microbes. Plants and animals can only survive as communities of different organisms, all closely linked to each in their own habitat, and requiring specific abiotic conditions. Thus, forests, grasslands, deserts, mountains, rivers, lakes and the marine environment all form habitats for specialised communities of plants and animals to live in. Interactions between the abiotic aspects…