• A level biology,  Biology,  Fun Fact,  Zoology

    Koala Has Human Like Fingerprints!

    The discovery that koalas have human-like fingerprints was a surprising revelation that has captured the attention of the scientific community and the general public alike. In this essay, I will explain this discovery in detail, including the methods used by researchers to uncover this fact and the potential implications of this discovery for the field of biology and beyond. The discovery that koalas have unique fingerprints that resemble human fingerprints was made in 2016 by a team of researchers from the University of Adelaide in Australia. The researchers were studying koala genetics in an effort to find ways to protect the species from disease and habitat loss. As part of…

  • plasma-membrane
    A level biology,  A level biology,  Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology,  O level biology

    Plasma membrane

    Delimiting membrane or boundary of all cells providing the characteristic shape to the cell. Structure ● Composed of approx. 7 nm thick phospholipid bilayer with hydrophilic heads facing outward from both sides into aqueous environment and hydrophobic tails facing inside the bilayer. ● A symmetrical the presence of proteins, floating in the bilayer imparts a fluid mosaic pattern which comprises of (a) Integral/Intrinsic proteins spanning through the lipid bilayer, protruding both extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of membrane. (b) Peripheral/Extrinsic proteins located on outside either extracellular or cytoplasmic surface. (c) Lipid anchored proteins covalently linked to a lipid molecule of bilayer but present outside to it. ● Some oligosaccharides are covalently…

  • oyster
    Biology,  Fun Fact

    How do oysters make pearls?

    Pearls are formed in the body of a sea oyster as a response to an irritant that enters its shell. The irritant can be a foreign object such as a grain of sand or a parasite that makes its way into the oyster’s shell. In response to the irritant, the oyster secretes a substance called nacre (also known as mother-of-pearl) around the irritant to protect its soft body. Over time, multiple layers of nacre are deposited around the irritant, forming a pearl.The process of pearl formation is complex and involves a series of biological and chemical reactions. When the irritant enters the oyster’s shell, the oyster’s mantle (a soft tissue…

  • mutation
    A level biology,  A level biology,  Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology,  Genetics,  O level biology


    Mutation is a change in the DNA sequence of an organism’s genetic material. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the molecule that carries the genetic instructions for the development and function of all living things. DNA is made up of four chemical bases, adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T), which are arranged in a specific sequence to form genes. Genes are the functional units of DNA that encode specific traits and are passed on from parent to offspring. In biology, mutations can occur naturally or as a result of exposure to certain environmental factors such as radiation or chemicals. Natural mutations can arise from errors during DNA replication…