Abdomen: The abdomen refers to the region between the pelvis (pelvic brim) and the thorax (thoracic diaphragm) invertebrates, including humans. The space constituting the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. The borders of the abdominal cavity are comprised of the posterior peritoneal surface, the anterior abdominal wall, the inferior pelvic inlet, and the superior thoracic diaphragm. The abdomen functions to house the digestive system and provides muscles essential for posture, balance, and breathing.
Abiotic – nonliving, inanimate, characterized by the absence of life; of inorganic matter.
Activation energy – The energy required to complete a chemical reaction.
Aerobic: living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen.
Amino acid – The “building blocks” of proteins
Amino sugar – A sugar molecule with an amine group attached instead of one of its hydroxyl groups.
Anatomy: Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. Anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body parts.
Angiosperm : Angiosperm, any of about 300,000 species of flowering plants, the largest and most diverse group within the kingdom Plantae. Angiosperms represent approximately 80 per cent of all the known green plants now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The ovary itself is usually enclosed in a flower, that part of the angiospermous plant that contains the male or female reproductive organs or both. Fruits are derived from the maturing floral organs of the angiospermous plant and are therefore characteristic of angiosperms. By contrast, in gymnosperms (e.g., conifers and cycads), the other large group of vascular seed plants, the seeds do not develop enclosed within an ovary but are usually borne exposed on the surfaces of reproductive structures, such as cones.
Antibiotic: any substance that can destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria and similar microorganisms.
Antibody: A protein produced by the immune system meant to incapacitate and tag foreign bodies for disposal.
Antigen – A protein attached to the surface of a foreign body which can be recognized by proteins on immune cells.
Apoptosis – Programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms, preceded by distinct changes to the morphology and biochemistry of the cell. Common during development and also used to prevent disease.
Apospory: Formation of gametophyte directly from sporophyte without meiosis and spore formation is apospory.
ATP – The “energy currency” of the cell. The chemical bonds in the ATP molecule store energy that can be used to accomplish life functions.
Bacteria: Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with prokaryotic cells, which are single cells that do not have organelles or a true nucleus and are less complex than eukaryotic cells. Bacteria with a capital B refers to the domain Bacteria, one of the three domains of life. The other two domains of life are Archaea, members of which are also single-celled organisms with prokaryotic cells, and Eukaryota. Bacteria are extremely numerous, and the total biomass of bacteria on Earth is more than all plants and animals combined.
Binary fission – The method by which bacteria reproduce asexually through dividing.
Biodiversity – Large variety of organisms.
Biofilm: a thin film of mucus created by and containing a colony of bacteria and other microorganisms.
Biome – A large, naturally occurring community of life forms. Biomes can be thought of as “types of ecosystems.” Rainforest, tundra, savanna, temperate forest, and temperate grassland are examples of biomes.
Biomolecule – Biomolecule, also called biological molecule, any of numerous substances that are produced by cells and living organisms. Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast array of functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
Bioremediation: the use of biological organisms, usually microorganisms, to remove contaminants, especially from soil or polluted water.
Biotechnology: the use of living organisms (especially microorganisms) in industrial, agricultural, medical, and other technological applications.
Biotic factor – A living element of an ecosystem, such as a plant, animal, or bacteria. Biotic and abiotic factors together make up an ecosystem.
Biotransformation: the changes (both chemical and physical) that occur to a substance (especially a drug) by the actions of enzymes within an organism.
Capillary action – The mechanism by which trees draw water up through their roots to feed their leaves.
Carbohydates : A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n). This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses.
Carbon cycle: the physical cycle of carbon through the earth’s biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere that includes such processes as photosynthesis, decomposition, respiration and carbonification.
Carcinoma: Carcinoma is a term used to describe cancer derived from epithelial cells that line various tissues throughout the body. In addition, malignant tumours that have an unknown primary origin, but share histological characteristics with epithelial cells (e.g., stratification, pseudostratification, cytokeratin production, mucin, etc.) are also classified as carcinomas. Depending on the location, carcinomas can be surgically removed, or treated with conventional radiation or chemotherapy.
Cell: The cell (meaning “small room”) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. All living organisms are made up of building blocks we call the cell. Many living things consist of vast numbers of cells working in concert with one another.
Cell Biology: Cell biology is the study of cell structure and function, and it revolves around the concept that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. Focusing on the cell permits a detailed understanding of the tissues and organisms that cells compose
Cell membrane – A membrane made up of phospholipids, and which separates from the inside of a cell from the outside.
cell surface membrane: a very thin membrane (about 7nm diameter) surrounding all cells; it is partially permeable and controls the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment.
Cell wall : A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes (except mollicute bacteria), in algae, fungi and eukaryotes including plants but are absent in animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters.
Cellular respiration – Energy from nutrients is converted into ATP.
Centriole: one of two small, cylindrical structures, made from microtubules, found just outside the nucleus in animal cells, in a region known as the centrosome; they are also found at the bases of cilia and flagella
Chemosynthetic: Using chemical reactions as energy source. Eg: Nitrosomonas Bacteria.
Chemotroph – An organism that obtains energy mainly from carbon dioxide and from other inorganic chemicals through a process called chemosynthesis
Chloroplast: an organelle found in the cells of green plants and photosynthetic algae where photosynthesis takes place.
Chromatin: the loosely coiled form of chromosomes during interphase of the cell cycle; chromatin is made of DNA and proteins and is visible as loosely distributed patches or fibres within the nucleus when stained.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Classification: Grouping of organisms into categories on the basis of similarities & differences.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Coenzyme – A complex enzyme contains a non-protein part, called a prosthetic group or co-enzymes. Co-enzymes are very essential for the biological activities of the enzyme.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Cohesion – The tendency of molecules to stick to other molecules like themselves.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Convergent evolution – Occurs when unrelated life forms evolve very similar solutions to environmental problems.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Conjugation: the temporary fusion of organisms, especially as part of sexual reproduction.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Crista: cristae (singular crista) are the internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text el_id=”cyanobacteria”]Cyanobacteria: photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms, of phylum Cyanobacteria, once known as blue-green algae.
All organisms, no matter their size, their species, or where they live, need to interact with other organisms in their ‘neighborhood’ and with their environment in order to survive. Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. The term comes from the Greek ‘study of house’, or the study of the place we live in.
The scope of ecology is huge, and it encompasses all organisms living on Earth and their physical and chemical surroundings. For this reason, the field is usually divided into different levels of study including: organismal ecology, population ecology, community ecology and ecosystem ecology.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column][vc_column_text]Ecosystem – A biological community of organisms and their environment. “Ecosystem” and “biome” are very similar terms, although “biome” usually refers to a specific type of ecosystem such as a rainforest, tundra, etc.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Electron Transport Chain(ETC):
The sequence of reactions whereby the reduced forms of the coenzymes are reoxidized by molecular O2 known as electron transport chain
The chain has principle electron carriers
- NADH dehydrogenase.
- Succinate dehydrogenase.
- Coenzyme Q.
- Cytochromes b2, bH, b560, c1, c, a, & a3 and iron sulphur proteins.
Each of them functions as a redox system with its prosthetic group or metal ions changing alternatively to reductant and oxidant – forms during electron transport.