• Biology,  Zoology

    Phylum Protozoa

    Protos—first, Zoan—animal, First animal phylum Study of protozoans called Protozoology Father of protozoology – Antony von Leeuwenhoek Term Protozoa was assigned by Goldfuss Protozoa belong to Kingdom Protista of Haeckel Single-celled, solitary or colonial, eukaryotes Important characters Size ranges from 1µ to 5000µ Aquatic – freshwater or marine forms, or endoparasites Grade of organization– protoplasmic or subcellular Locomotion by cilia, flagella or pseudopodia, or absent Skeleton – may or may not be present; if present then either calcareous or siliceous. Foraminifers have external shell of CaCO3 ( ex. Polystomella), whereas Radiolarians have internal plates of silica Osmoregulation by contractile vacuole in freshwater protozoans (isotonic to 0.8 % NaCl solution). C.V.…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Kingdom

    Animal Kingdom covers about 35-phyla, of which 11 are considered to be major phyla. In major phyla, 10 are from Non-chordates and 1 from chordates. The 11-major phyla are – Phylum Protozoa: single-celled (solitary or colonial)Eukaryotes Phylum Porifera: Sponges Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfishes and sea anemones Phylum Ctenophora*: Comb jellies Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flat warms Phylum Aschelminthes: Roundworms or threadworms. Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms (Earthworm, Leech etc.) Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed legged-invertebrates Phylum Mollusca: Snails, bivalves, octopus etc. Phylum Echinodermata: Seastar, Brittle star, Sea lily etc. Phylum Chordata: Protochordates and vertebrates (*As Ctenophora includes less than 100 species, it is generally considered as a Minor Phylum with Rotifera, Phoronida, Brachiopoda and Gastrotricha etc.).…

  • Biology

    FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM

    In this lesson, we discussing five kingdom classification. Five kingdom classification is proposed by R.H.Whittaker in 1969. the kingdom defined by him were named Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In this lesson, we show a brief introduction to these kingdoms for more information on kingdom please visit a particular lesson on that kingdom. Main Criteria used for this classification are cell structure, thallus organization, mode of nutrients, reproduction and phylogenetic relationship. Besides these major characteristics, he has also given importance to characters of ecological role-played and mode of reproduction. Major criteria on which five-kingdom classification is based Criterion Kingdom Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Cell type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic…

  • Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Biology,  Botony

    Symbiosis

    A symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Symbioses may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually. Obligate symbioses are often evolved over a long period of time, while facultative symbioses may be more modern, behavioral adaptions; given time, facultative symbioses may evolve into obligate symbioses. Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship, occurring when one of…

  • Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biology,  MCQ

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Q1. Rules to explain “The phenomenon of inheritance of biological characteristics” was formulated by: A) T.H.Morgan  B) Gregor Johann Mendell C) Rudolf Virchow D) Bateson  E) Lamark Q2. Genetic research was activated and a revolution in modern biology occurred in the year: A) 1951-53 B) 1961-63 C) 1971-73 D) 1975-71 E) 1981-83 Q3. Genetic engineering  usually utilizes cells and plasmids of: A) Bacteria B) Viruses C) Algae D) Fungi E) Parasites Q4. “rDNA” is: A) Ribosomal DNA B) Riorazion DNA C) Resolution DNA D) Regenerate DNA E) Recombinant DNA Q5. DNA molecule into which a gene is inserted to construct a recombinant DNA molecule is: A) Activator  B) Initiator  C)…

  • Biology,  MCQ

    CELL BIOLOGY MCQ

    Q1: The diameter of most animal cells ranges from  A) 1.0 to 10 µm. B) 0.01 to 0.1 µm. C) 10 to 100 µm. D) 100 to 1000 µm. E) 0.1 to 1.0 µm. Q2: Which of the following is a feature found in BOTH prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? A) extensive array of intermediate filaments B) multiple linear chromosomes in each cell C) ribosomes that accomplish protein synthesis D) mitotic spindles that partition chromosomes into the daughter cells E) All of the above are found in both types of cells. Q3. Knowing what you know about phospholipid bilayers; if you wanted to build your own membrane protein, what would your…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Tissue

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Biology

    COENZYMES

    Enzymes may be simple proteins or complex enzymes. A complex enzyme contains a non-protein part, called a prosthetic group (co-enzymes). Coenzymes are heat stable low molecular weight organic compound. The combined form of protein and the co-enzyme are called as holo-enzyme. The heat labile or unstable part of the holo-enzyme is called as apo-enzyme. The apo-enzyme gives necessary three-dimensional structures required for the enzymatic chemical reaction. Co-enzymes are very essential for the biological activities of the enzyme. Co-enzymes combine loosely with apo-enzyme and are released easily by dialysis. Most of the co-enzymes are derivatives of vitamin B complex group of substance. One molecule of the co-enzyme with its enzyme is sufficient…

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