• Human alimentary tract
    Biology,  Human anatomy

    Human Digestive Enzymes

    Human digestive enzymes are mainly synthesized in the salivary glands and in the pancreas As we’ve discussed, enzymes are made up of amino acids found in proteins so a ready supply of these building blocks is required to ensure there are optimal levels of digestive enzymes at all times. Digestive enzymes are mixed in the saliva and pancreatic juices and are released into the mouth and small intestines, respectively, to support digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Their synthesis and release occur via carefully orchestrated and tightly controlled hormone systems that are activated not just when food hits our taste buds but also by the sight, smell and sound of…

  • A level biology,  Biology,  Cell biology

    Animal Cell

    All animal cells are multicellular. They are eukaryotic cells. Animal cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and it contains the nucleus and organelles that are membrane-bound. Unlike the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells do not have a cell wall. This feature was lost in the distant past by the single-celled organisms that gave rise to the kingdom Animalia. Animal cells are of various sizes and have irregular shapes. Most of the cells size range between 1 and 100 micrometers and are visible only with the microscope. Trillions of cells are found in the human body. There are many different types of cells, approximately 210 distinct cell types…

  • A level biology,  Biology

    Microscopy

    Of all the techniques used in biology, microscopy is probably the most important. The vast majority of living organisms are too small to be seen in any detail with the human eye and cells and their organelles can only be seen with the aid of a microscope.  Cells were first seen in 1665 by Robert Hooke (who named them after monks’ cells in a monastery) and were studied in more detail by Leeuwenhoek using a primitive microscope. Units of measurement: Metre  (m) = 1 m Millimetre  mm = 10-3 m Micrometre   µm = 10-6 m Nanometre    nm = 10-9 m Magnification and Resolution By using more lenses microscopes can achieve…

  • Biology

    FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM

    In this lesson, we discussing five kingdom classification. Five kingdom classification is proposed by R.H.Whittaker in 1969. the kingdom defined by him were named Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In this lesson, we show a brief introduction to these kingdoms for more information on kingdom please visit a particular lesson on that kingdom. Main Criteria used for this classification are cell structure, thallus organization, mode of nutrients, reproduction and phylogenetic relationship. Besides these major characteristics, he has also given importance to characters of ecological role-played and mode of reproduction. Major criteria on which five-kingdom classification is based Criterion Kingdom Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Cell type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic…

  • Biology,  Genetics,  Q & A

    What is the Biological function of DNA

    DNA polymers direct the production of other polymers called proteins A protein is one or more polymers of monomers called amino acids. Proteins are the workhorse molecules in your cells. They act as enzymes, structural support, hormones, and a whole host of other functional molecules. All traits derive from the interactions of proteins with each other and the surrounding environments. A chromosome consists of smaller segments called genes Chromosomes are very long structures consisting of two DNA polymers, joined together by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary base pairs. A chromosome is divided into segments of double-stranded DNA called genes. Image showing how a chromosome is made up of DNA which contains genes.…

  • Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Biology,  Botony

    Symbiosis

    A symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Symbioses may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually. Obligate symbioses are often evolved over a long period of time, while facultative symbioses may be more modern, behavioral adaptions; given time, facultative symbioses may evolve into obligate symbioses. Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship, occurring when one of…

  • Biology,  Q & A

    What Would Happen If All the Bees Died?

    There are about 20,000 species of bees in the world, and they are probably the most important insect pollinators. The thousands of bee species have unique flight patterns and floral preferences, and many have coevolved with flowers in such a way that their body sizes and behaviors almost perfectly complement the flowers they pollinate. Sadly, bees of all types are in decline worldwide, as are many other insects. The familiar honeybee has suffered greatly from colony collapse disorder, in which hives suddenly lose their adult members. Populations of bumblebees and other solitary bees have steeply declined in many places, largely because of insecticide and herbicide use, habitat loss, and global…

  • Biology,  Botony,  MCQ

    MCQs ON KINGDOM MONERA

    1. Which one belongs to monera? (a) Amoeba (b) Escherichia (c) Gelidium (d) Spirogyra. Answer and Explanation: 1. (b): All prokaryotic organisms comes under Kingdom monera. Escherichia coli is a bacteria. Monera includes bacteria, mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria (blue green alga) and actinomycetes. 2. The main difference in Gram (+) ve and Gram (-) ve bacteria resides in their (a) cell wall (b) cell membrane (c) cytoplasm (d) flagella. Answer and Explanation: 2. (a): Danish bacteriologists Christian Gram for the first time classified bacteria on the basis of the cell wall into two groups – gram +ve and gram -ve by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Gram +ve cell walls are less complex…

  • Biology,  Botony

    MCQ ON PLANT REPRODUCTION

    1. Formation of gametophyte directly from sporophyte without meiosis is (a) apospory (b) apogamy (c) parthenogenesis (d) amphimixis. Answer and Explanation: 1. (a): Formation of gametophyte directly from sporophyte without meiosis and spore formation is apospory. The gametophyte has a diploid number of chromosomes such gametophyte may form viable gametes which fuse to form tetraploid sporophyte. Apogamy is the development of sporophyte directly from gametophytic tissue without fusion of gametes. Amphimixis is normal sexual reproduction. Parthenogenesis is the development of an embryo from an egg without fertilization. 2. Parthenogenesis is (a) development of an embryo without fertilization (b) development of fruit without fertilization (c) development of fruit without hormones (d) development of…

error

Enjoy this blog? Please spread the word :)