• Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Biology,  Botony

    Symbiosis

    A symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Symbioses may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually. Obligate symbioses are often evolved over a long period of time, while facultative symbioses may be more modern, behavioral adaptions; given time, facultative symbioses may evolve into obligate symbioses. Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship, occurring when one of…

  • Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biology,  MCQ

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Q1. Rules to explain “The phenomenon of inheritance of biological characteristics” was formulated by: A) T.H.Morgan  B) Gregor Johann Mendell C) Rudolf Virchow D) Bateson  E) Lamark Q2. Genetic research was activated and a revolution in modern biology occurred in the year: A) 1951-53 B) 1961-63 C) 1971-73 D) 1975-71 E) 1981-83 Q3. Genetic engineering  usually utilizes cells and plasmids of: A) Bacteria B) Viruses C) Algae D) Fungi E) Parasites Q4. “rDNA” is: A) Ribosomal DNA B) Riorazion DNA C) Resolution DNA D) Regenerate DNA E) Recombinant DNA Q5. DNA molecule into which a gene is inserted to construct a recombinant DNA molecule is: A) Activator  B) Initiator  C)…

  • Biology,  MCQ

    CELL BIOLOGY MCQ

    Q1: The diameter of most animal cells ranges from  A) 1.0 to 10 µm. B) 0.01 to 0.1 µm. C) 10 to 100 µm. D) 100 to 1000 µm. E) 0.1 to 1.0 µm. Q2: Which of the following is a feature found in BOTH prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? A) extensive array of intermediate filaments B) multiple linear chromosomes in each cell C) ribosomes that accomplish protein synthesis D) mitotic spindles that partition chromosomes into the daughter cells E) All of the above are found in both types of cells. Q3. Knowing what you know about phospholipid bilayers; if you wanted to build your own membrane protein, what would your…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Tissue

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Biology

    COENZYMES

    Enzymes may be simple proteins or complex enzymes. A complex enzyme contains a non-protein part, called a prosthetic group (co-enzymes). Coenzymes are heat stable low molecular weight organic compound. The combined form of protein and the co-enzyme are called as holo-enzyme. The heat labile or unstable part of the holo-enzyme is called as apo-enzyme. The apo-enzyme gives necessary three-dimensional structures required for the enzymatic chemical reaction. Co-enzymes are very essential for the biological activities of the enzyme. Co-enzymes combine loosely with apo-enzyme and are released easily by dialysis. Most of the co-enzymes are derivatives of vitamin B complex group of substance. One molecule of the co-enzyme with its enzyme is sufficient…

  • Biology

    Immunity

    Immunity is the ability of an individual host to resists development of disease and allergy even after having received an infective dose of the pathogen with complete virulence and the various allergens.Immune system is the system of animal body which protects it from various pathogens / infectious agents/allergens and cancerImmunology is the science of development of immunity against particular pathogen or allergenThe foundation of the science of immunology was laid by three workers: Edward Jenner ( 1796)A risky inoculation of small pox pustule through a scratch on vein was performed in Turkey and other eastern countries. Jenner noticed that milk – maids did not suffer from small pox though they…

  • Rh Factor and How it Works
    Biology

    Rh Factor and How it Works

    We know that people have different blood types. What this means is some people have one “factor” and some don’t. Some have A, and some have B, and some don’t have either. We call them type A, B and O (think of “zero” if it helps). If you needed a blood transfusion you would have to get it from someone who has the same blood factors which you have — or else from someone who doesn’t have those blood factors, someone who is type “O” (without A or B). If you were given the wrong blood, your body would attack and destroy the new blood like a foreign invader —…

  • Biology

    Biological Classification

    In our daily life, we come across several animals, plants, and microbes, which have been named in order to understand their importance and to communicate with them. However, this communication about organisms becomes difficult in an area or a region where they do not occur or if they occur but are recognized by some other name. Further, organic evolution has caused a great number of biodiversity adding another problem to biologists to remember, and to identify new ones. All these factors contribute to a need for developing a system, called taxonomy.Taxonomy is the branch of science dealing with naming, Taxonomy is the branch of science dealing with naming, the grouping…