• environmental science,  Video Notes

    Ecosystem – Structure and Function

    https://youtu.be/RlWj__29Uew The term ‘ecosystem’ was proposed by a British ecologist A.G. Tansley (1953). It represents the basic fundamental, functional unit of ecology which comprises of the biotic community together with its abiotic (non-living) environment. Ecosystem is the functional unit of nature where living organisms interact with each other and with their environment. Ecosystems can be recognized as self-regulating and self-sustaining units of landscapes that may be terrestrial or aquatic. Forests, grasslands and deserts are examples of terrestrial ecosystems. The aquatic ecosystems can be either freshwater (ponds, lakes, streams) or saltwater (marine estuaries) type. Ecosystem may be natural (forest, sea) if developed under natural conditions or artificial (garden, aquarium, agriculture) if…

  • Video Notes

    Active Transport

    A few ions or molecules are transported across the membrane against their concentration gradient, i.e., from lower to higher concentration. Such type of transport is called active transport because it is an energy-dependent process in which ATP is utilised, e.g., Na+/K+ pump. https://youtu.be/visqfZd7Ms4 Active transport uses energy to pump molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport is carried out by membrane-bound proteins. Hence, different proteins in the membrane play a major role in both active as well as passive transport. Cells undergoing active transport bear abundant mitochondria to provide ATP, needed to power active transport. Pumps are protein which can transport the substances. Active transport shows uphill transport because in…

  • Human anatomy

    EXCRETORY SYSTEM IN HUMAN

    Except for urinary bladder which is endodermal in origin, the whole excretory system is Except urinary bladder which is endodermal in origin, the whole excretory system is Except mesodermal. In human the kidney is retroperitoneal i.e., the kidney is located outside the coelomic cavity and is covered by peritoneum (coelomic epithelium) from the ventral side only. The size of each kidney is ~10 cm and it weighs is ~150 g. The two kidneys are asymmetrical, the Rt. being posterior to the Lt. Each kidney is bean-shaped with a groove (hilus) in the middle. The hilus is absent in frog’s kidney. The white fibrous connective tissue-covering around kidney is called renal…

  • Biology

    FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM

    In this lesson, we discussing five kingdom classification. Five kingdom classification is proposed by R.H.Whittaker in 1969. the kingdom defined by him were named Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In this lesson, we show a brief introduction to these kingdoms for more information on kingdom please visit a particular lesson on that kingdom. Main Criteria used for this classification are cell structure, thallus organization, mode of nutrients, reproduction and phylogenetic relationship. Besides these major characteristics, he has also given importance to characters of ecological role-played and mode of reproduction. Major criteria on which five-kingdom classification is based Criterion Kingdom Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Cell type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic…

  • Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Q & A

    What is the function of the cell membrane?

    The cell membrane is otherwise called a Plasma membrane. It may be defined as the thin, elastic, semipermeable living membrane that serves as a boundary for the Cytoplasm. The Cell membrane is made up of glycoproteins and phospholipids. The Functions of the Cell membrane are as follows: Cell membrane or Plasma membrane is a semipermeable membrane present around the Protoplasm. It acts as a boundary to the cell. It gives a definite shape to the Cell. It gives Mechanical support to the Cell. It protects cell contents. It regulates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell. The Sites for cell recognition are located on the surface of the Plasma…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

  • Biochemistry

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    DIFFERENT MODE OF DIGESTION IN ORGANISMS The collective processes by which a living organism takes food which are necessary for their growth, maintenance and energy needs is called nutrition. The chemical substances present in the food are called nutrients. It is important to know the different modes of nutrition in all living organisms in order to understand energy flow within the ecosystem. Plant produces high energy organic food from inorganic raw materials. They are called autotroph and the mode of nutrition is known as autotrophic nutrition. Animals feed on those high energy organic food, are called as heterotrophs and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition. Heterotrophic nutrition…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Tissue

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Biochemistry

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    The word biotechnology has come from two words, bios (meaning biology) and technology (meaning technological application). Thus biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology is applied in many areas to produce foods and medicines, in the development of new diagnostic tools, gene therapy, and DNA finger-printing for forensic purposes. Applications of Biotechnology 1. Health and medicine Fighting infectious diseases: Biotechnology is used extensively in the study of infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), and influenza. As a result, more…