• Botony

    ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANT

    You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants. Study of the internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn, the tissues are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots are also seen to be anatomically different.…

  • Biochemistry

    PLANT TISSUES

    Organs such as stem, roots in plants made up of different kinds of tissues. A tissue is a group of cells with a common origin, structure and function.Their common origin means they are derived from the same layer of cells in the embryo. Being of a common origin, they are similar in structure and hence perform the same function. Many kinds of tissues organize to form an organ. Example: Parenchyma, collenchyma, xylem, and phloem are different tissues in plants. The study of tissues is called histology. The plant tissues are mainly of two types: Meristematic (Gk. meristos : dividing) Permanent (non-dividing) Meristematic tissues Composed of immature or undifferentiated cells without intercellular spaces.…

  • Q & A

    Q & A OF ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

    Q1) Name the associated structure of companion cell. Ans: Sieve tube cell Q2) Name an enucleated plant cell. Ans: Sieve tube cell Q3) Name the conductory elements of xylem. Ans: Tracheary elements- Tracheids and Vessels (tracheae)  Q4) What is periderm? Ans: Phellogen, Phellum and Phelloderm are collectively called as Periderm Q5) What is annual ring? Ans: Springwood and autumn wood that appear as alternate concentric rings constitute an annual ring.  Q6) Name the meristem which is responsible for growth in diameter of the cortex. Ans: Cork Cambium Q7) What is intrafascicular cambium? Ans: Cells of cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem. Q8) What is interfascicular cambium? Ans: The…

  • Botony

    ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS

    For a better understanding of tissue organisation of roots, stems and leaves, it is convenient to study the transverse sections of the mature zones of these organs. Dicotyledonous Root Look at Figure, it shows the transverse section of the sunflower root. The internal tissue organisation is as follows: The outermost layer is epiblema. Many of the cells of epiblema protrude in the form of unicellular root hairs. The cortex consists of several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells with intercellular spaces. The innermost layer of the cortex is called endodermis. It comprises a single layer of barrel-shaped cells without any intercellular spaces. The tangential, as well as radial walls of the…

  • Botony

    THE TISSUE SYSTEM- ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

    We were discussing types of tissues based on the types of cells present. Let us now consider how tissues vary depending on their location in the plant body. Their structure and function would also be dependent on location. On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types of tissue systems. These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system. Epidermal Tissue System The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal appendages – the trichomes and hairs. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the…

  • Botony

    THE TISSUES- ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANT

    A tissue is a group of cells having a common origin and usually performing a common function. A plant is made up of different kinds of tissues. Tissues are classified into two main groups, namely, meristematic and permanent tissues based on whether the cells being formed are capable of dividing or not. Meristematic Tissues Growth in plants is largely restricted to specialised regions of active cell division called meristems (Gk. meristos: divided). Plants have different kinds of meristems. The meristems which occur at the tips of roots and shoots and produce primary tissues are called apical meristems (Figure). Apical meristem: Shoot Apical meristem: Root Root apical meristem occupies the tip…

  • Biology,  Botony

    LEAF (PHYLLOPODIUM)

    The leaf is a lateral generally flattened structure borne on the stem. The leaves develop from the nodes. Their main function is photosynthesis and food making, axillary buds are found in its axil. All the leaves of a plant are known as phyllome. Axillary bud later develops into a branch. Leaves originated from shoot apical meristem and are arranged in acropetal order. Leaf is divided into 3 main parts : Leaf base (Hypopodium) – Leaves are attached to stem by leaf base. In some plants, leaf base becomes swollen and is called pulvinus which is responsible for sleep movement e.g., Cassia, mimosa, bean. In some plants, leaf base expands into…