• Q & A

    Q & A on Cell Structure

    Q: What is cell theory? Cell theory asserts that the cell is the constituent unit of living beings. Before the discovery of the cell, it was not recognized that living beings were made of building blocks like cells. The cell theory is one of the basic theories of Biology. Q:  Are there living beings without cells? Viruses are considered the only living beings that do not have cells. Viruses are constituted by genetic material (DNA or RNA) enwrapped by a protein capsule. They do not have membranes and cell organelles nor do they have self-metabolism. Q:  In 1665 Robert Hooke, an English scientist, published his book Micrographia, in which he…

  • A level biology,  Biology,  Cell biology

    Animal Cell

    All animal cells are multicellular. They are eukaryotic cells. Animal cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and it contains the nucleus and organelles that are membrane-bound. Unlike the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells do not have a cell wall. This feature was lost in the distant past by the single-celled organisms that gave rise to the kingdom Animalia. Animal cells are of various sizes and have irregular shapes. Most of the cells size range between 1 and 100 micrometers and are visible only with the microscope. Trillions of cells are found in the human body. There are many different types of cells, approximately 210 distinct cell types…

  • Biochemistry,  Q & A

    Q & A ON CELL RESPIRATION

    1. How do cells obtain the energy they need to function? Cells obtain energy for their metabolic reactions from breaking down organic molecules with a high energy content. This energy is mostly stored as ATP molecules. The process of obtaining energy in order to produce ATP molecules is called cellular respiration. 2. What compound is phosphorylated for ATP formation? What is the resulting compound when ATP releases energy? ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is formed after the binding of one phosphate molecule (phosphorylation) to one ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule. This is a process that stores energy in the produced ATP molecule. When ATP provides energy to the cellular metabolism, it releases…

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