• Biology,  Genetics,  Q & A

    What is the Biological function of DNA

    DNA polymers direct the production of other polymers called proteins A protein is one or more polymers of monomers called amino acids. Proteins are the workhorse molecules in your cells. They act as enzymes, structural support, hormones, and a whole host of other functional molecules. All traits derive from the interactions of proteins with each other and the surrounding environments. A chromosome consists of smaller segments called genes Chromosomes are very long structures consisting of two DNA polymers, joined together by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary base pairs. A chromosome is divided into segments of double-stranded DNA called genes. Image showing how a chromosome is made up of DNA which contains genes.…

  • Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Genetics,  Q & A


    1. Who was Gregor Mendel? Mendel is considered the father of genetics. He was a monk, biologist and botanist born in Austria in 1822 and who died in 1884. During the years 1853 to 1863, he cultivated pea plants in the gardens of his monastery to be used in his research. His experiments consisted of crossing pea plants with distinct characteristics (size, seed color, etc.), cataloging the results and interpreting them. The experiments led him to develop his laws, results published in 1886 with no scientific repercussions at that time. Only at the beginning of the 20th century, in 1902, 18 years after his death, were his achievements broadly recognized.…

  • Genetics,  Q & A


    Q 1. Define cell cycle Ans. The sequence of events by which cell duplicates its genome, synthesis of other constituents of the cell and eventually divides into two daughters cell. Q2. Name the phases of cell cycle Ans. A) Interphase B) M Phase Q3. What is the G1phase of the interphase? Ans. The G1 phase Corresponds to interval between mitosis & initiation of DNA replication. Q4. Which phase follows the S phase in the cell cycle? Ans. G2 Phase Q5. What is mitosis? Ans. Cell divides equally to produce identical daughter cell so that they receive an equal number of chromosomes as that of its parents cell.  Q6. What is meiosis? Ans. It…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Genetics


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA is a nucleic acid; alongside proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids compose the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. DNA  stores instructions for making other large molecules, called proteins. These instructions are stored inside each of your cells, distributed among 46 long structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are made up of thousands of shorter segments of DNA, called genes. Each gene stores the directions for making protein fragments, whole proteins, or multiple specific proteins. DNA is well-suited to…

  • Biology,  Genetics

    Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Father of Genetics

    Gregor Mendel, through his work on pea plants, discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance. He deduced that genes come in pairs and are inherited as distinct units, one from each parent. Mendel tracked the segregation of parental genes and their appearance in the offspring as dominant or recessive traits. He recognized the mathematical patterns of inheritance from one generation to the next. Mendel’s Laws of Heredity are usually stated as: 1) The Law of Segregation: Each inherited trait is defined by a gene pair. Parental genes are randomly separated to the sex cells so that sex cells contain only one gene of the pair. Offspring therefore inherit one genetic allele…

  • Biochemistry


    Meiosis is the type of cell division by which gametes (eggs or sperm) are formed. It involves two divisions and results in four different daughter cells that have 23 chromosomes. This ensures that, when an egg and a sperm unite during fertilization, the resulting embryo will have 46 chromosomes – the normal number for a human. The first meiotic division is called Meiosis I, and the second meiotic division is called Meiosis II. Meiosis I Meiosis one is identical to the stages of mitosis. The only difference is that each stage ends with an “I” to identify it is occurring during Meiosis I. please click here for mitosis Meiosis II…

  • Biology,  Genetics


    Mitosis is a type of cell division by which a eukaryotic cell divides into two by a special method. In this process, the nucleus and chromosome are divided once and the number, structure and properties of the chromosome in the newly formed cell remain just like the mother. cell. Mitosis is also termed as equational division. Normally this division occurs in the somatic cell. As a result of this division, the plant and animal increases in length and breadth. Mitosis occurs in all meristematic cells of plants. Pre-Mitosis (Interphase): The chromosomes are duplicated just before mitosis, so there are two identical (‘sister’) copies of each one. This gives a total of…

  • Biology,  Cell biology,  Genetics


    Every living body is composed of the cell. Some living bodies are made of only one cell. They are called unicellular organism, e.g. Bacteria, Amoeba, Plasmodium, some Fungi and some Algae. Some living bodies are made of more than one cell. These are called the multicellular organism. There are many living bodies, which are made of millions of cells. Living bodies like a human. beings or mango tree etc. are composed of millions of cells. Unicellular organisms increase their number (multiple) by cell division. In this process, one cell divides into two, two to four and so on. In multicellular organisms, a large body consisting of millions of cells develops…

  • Biochemistry

    Genes are made of DNA

    Today we are so familiar with the fact that DNA is the genetic material that it comes as quite a surprise to learn that this idea was considered ridiculous by most biologists until the 1940s and that experimental proof that human genes are made of DNA was not obtained until the 1970s. Why did it take so long to establish this fundamental fact of genetics? At first, it was thought that genes might be made of protein The first speculations about the chemical nature of genes were prompted by the discovery in the very early years of the twentieth century that genes are contained in chromosomes. Cytochemistry, in which cells…


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