• Biochemistry

    Genes are made of DNA

    Today we are so familiar with the fact that DNA is the genetic material that it comes as quite a surprise to learn that this idea was considered ridiculous by most biologists until the 1940s and that experimental proof that human genes are made of DNA was not obtained until the 1970s. Why did it take so long to establish this fundamental fact of genetics? At first, it was thought that genes might be made of protein The first speculations about the chemical nature of genes were prompted by the discovery in the very early years of the twentieth century that genes are contained in chromosomes. Cytochemistry, in which cells…

  • Biology

    The discovery of the double helix

    The discovery of the double helix, by James Watson and Francis Crick of Cambridge University, UK, in 1953, was the most important breakthrough in twentieth-century biology. The nature of the double helix revealed how genes can replicate, a puzzle that had seemed almost impossible to solve just a few years earlier. According to Watson in his book The Double Helix, the work was a desperate race against the famous American biochemist Linus Pauling, who initially thought that DNA was a triple helix. This mistake gave Watson and Crick the time they needed to complete their description of the double-helix structure. When Watson and Crick began their work, the structures of…

  • Biochemistry

    Genetics

    Genetics is a science, which deals with the study and understanding of heredity, evolution, development, ecology, molecular biology and forensic science. A German scientist by name Gregor Johann Mendel was a first founder of Genetics, hence he is also known as the father of genetics. He first demonstrated the inheritance of traits in pea plants and later it was referred to as a Mendelian inheritance. The main concept behind studying genetics are: It explains how the traits are passed from parents to their It explains how the traits are passed from parents to their offsprings. It also explains about the gene and the number of chromosomes present in an individual…