• Biochemistry,  Biology,  Cell biology

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Micromolecules – Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides (Including Disaccharides) Macromolecules – Polysaccharides The micromolecules have the molecular weight of < 1000 Daltons whereas the macromolecules have > 1000 Daltons as molecular weight. The average carbohydrate requirement in an adult is ~ 400g per day which provides about 50-70% of total energy. Essential elements in the constitution of carbohydrate – C. H. O General Formula – *Cx (H2O)y (Containing more than one-OH groups). The polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones can also be called as saccharides 80% of the dry weight of the plant is carbohydrate. There are 3-categories/classes  of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides They are simplest carbohydrates, with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.…

  • Biochemistry

    MCQs ON PLANT KINGDOM

    1. Sexual reproduction involving the fusion of two cells in Chlamydomonas is (a) isogamy (b) homogamy (c) somatogamy (d) hologamy Answer and Explanation: 1. (d): Isogamy involves the fusion of gametes which are morphologically and physiologically similar. They are called isogametes. In Chlamydomonas, two vegetative cells may fuse to form a zygospore and the phenomenon is called as hologamy. As a result of fusion of two gametes, zygospore is formed. 2. Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization. It is (a) apospory (b) apogamy (c) parthenocarpy (d) parthenogenesis. Answer and Explanation: 2. (b): Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization. This phenomenon is called apogamy. Development…

  • Biology,  Q & A,  Zoology

    Explain the excretory system in insects?

    Excretion Excretion is the process whereby an organism eliminates metabolic wastes and unwanted chemicals from its system. Metabolism is  the sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the cells and body. Some products of these metabolic reactions are toxic  and so must be processed or eliminated from the body. Others are simply materials that are present in excess and so must be  eliminated as waste. The process of excretion is quite different to defecation, which is the removal of undigested food wastes from  the gut. However, the gut of many animals also has a role in excretion as some materials may be excreted into the gut and  eliminated…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    SIGHT IN FISH

    While water is a better medium for the transmission of sound than air it is a much worse medium for the transmission of light. Basically, water absorbs light. This means that the further a ray of light travels through the water the weaker, or more attenuated it becomes. While we who live in the air can often see for several kilometres, sometimes even more than 20 km, a fish is lucky if it can see for 50 metres and generally it can see for far less than this. In muddy, algified or turbulent water visibility can often be measured in mere centimetres. Furthermore, because water absorbs light, the amount of…

  • Biology,  Botony,  MCQ

    MCQs ON KINGDOM FUNGI

    1. Lichens indicate SO2 pollution because of they (A) show association between algae and fungi (B) grow faster than others (C) are sensitive to SO2 (D) flourish in SO2 rich environment. Answer and Explanation: 1. (C): Lichens are found in Artie Tundra region where no other plant can grow. Lichens prefer to grow in pollution free environment. They are often used as an indicator of pollution and also they are very sensitive to SO2. They are first to die in a polluted environment (more SO2). 2. Absorptive heterotrophic nutrition is exhibited by (A) Algae (B) Fungi (C) Bryophytes (D) Pteridophytes Answer and Explanation: 2. (B): The true fungi or the eumycetes are special…

  • Genetics,  Q & A

    Q & A ON CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

    Q 1. Define cell cycle Ans. The sequence of events by which cell duplicates its genome, synthesis of other constituents of the cell and eventually divides into two daughters cell. Q2. Name the phases of cell cycle Ans. A) Interphase B) M Phase Q3. What is the G1phase of the interphase? Ans. The G1 phase Corresponds to interval between mitosis & initiation of DNA replication. Q4. Which phase follows the S phase in the cell cycle? Ans. G2 Phase Q5. What is mitosis? Ans. Cell divides equally to produce identical daughter cell so that they receive an equal number of chromosomes as that of its parents cell.  Q6. What is meiosis? Ans. It…

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