• Q & A

    Q & A on Cell Structure

    Q: What is cell theory? Cell theory asserts that the cell is the constituent unit of living beings. Before the discovery of the cell, it was not recognized that living beings were made of building blocks like cells. The cell theory is one of the basic theories of Biology. Q:  Are there living beings without cells? Viruses are considered the only living beings that do not have cells. Viruses are constituted by genetic material (DNA or RNA) enwrapped by a protein capsule. They do not have membranes and cell organelles nor do they have self-metabolism. Q:  In 1665 Robert Hooke, an English scientist, published his book Micrographia, in which he…

  • A level biology

    What is the function of Golgi body?

    The Golgi body is actually a pile or stack of membranous structures called cisternae. The numbers of cisternae in a single stack vary between 6-8. In some protists, however, the number could extend up to 60. The Golgi bodies are found in both plant & animal cells. The cisternae of Golgi body have four structural components i.e., cis-Golgi, endo-Golgi, medial-Golgi and trans-Golgi. The vesicles extending from endoplasmic reticulum fuse with the network. These vesicles then enter the stacks of Golgi body and finally reach the trans-Golgi. The different regions of Golgi apparatus contain different types of enzymes. These enzymes have certain specific tasks assigned to them. Vesicles leave the Golgi…

  • Biology,  Genetics,  Q & A

    What is the Biological function of DNA

    DNA polymers direct the production of other polymers called proteins A protein is one or more polymers of monomers called amino acids. Proteins are the workhorse molecules in your cells. They act as enzymes, structural support, hormones, and a whole host of other functional molecules. All traits derive from the interactions of proteins with each other and the surrounding environments. A chromosome consists of smaller segments called genes Chromosomes are very long structures consisting of two DNA polymers, joined together by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary base pairs. A chromosome is divided into segments of double-stranded DNA called genes. Image showing how a chromosome is made up of DNA which contains genes.…

  • Biology

    Father of Various Branches of Biology

    Father of Agronomy Peter – De- Cresenji Father of Agriculture Norman Borlaug Father of Anatomy Andreas Vesalius Father of Botany Theophrastus Father of Biology Aristotle Father of Bacteriology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Koch / Ferdinand Cohn / Louis Pasteur Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey Father of Cytology Robert Hooke Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison Father of Evolution Charles Darwin Father of Genetics G. J. Mendel Father of Modern Medicine Hippocrates Father of Modern Physiology Wilhelm Wundt Father of Modern Biochemistry Carl Alexander Neuberg Father of Immunology Edward Jenner’s Father of Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus Father of Surgery Sushruta Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father…

  • Biology,  Botony,  MCQ

    MCQs ON KINGDOM MONERA

    1. Which one belongs to monera? (a) Amoeba (b) Escherichia (c) Gelidium (d) Spirogyra. Answer and Explanation: 1. (b): All prokaryotic organisms comes under Kingdom monera. Escherichia coli is a bacteria. Monera includes bacteria, mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria (blue green alga) and actinomycetes. 2. The main difference in Gram (+) ve and Gram (-) ve bacteria resides in their (a) cell wall (b) cell membrane (c) cytoplasm (d) flagella. Answer and Explanation: 2. (a): Danish bacteriologists Christian Gram for the first time classified bacteria on the basis of the cell wall into two groups – gram +ve and gram -ve by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Gram +ve cell walls are less complex…

  • Q & A

    Q & A OF ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

    Q1) Name the associated structure of companion cell. Ans: Sieve tube cell Q2) Name an enucleated plant cell. Ans: Sieve tube cell Q3) Name the conductory elements of xylem. Ans: Tracheary elements- Tracheids and Vessels (tracheae)  Q4) What is periderm? Ans: Phellogen, Phellum and Phelloderm are collectively called as Periderm Q5) What is annual ring? Ans: Springwood and autumn wood that appear as alternate concentric rings constitute an annual ring.  Q6) Name the meristem which is responsible for growth in diameter of the cortex. Ans: Cork Cambium Q7) What is intrafascicular cambium? Ans: Cells of cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem. Q8) What is interfascicular cambium? Ans: The…

  • Biochemistry

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    DIFFERENT MODE OF DIGESTION IN ORGANISMS The collective processes by which a living organism takes food which are necessary for their growth, maintenance and energy needs is called nutrition. The chemical substances present in the food are called nutrients. It is important to know the different modes of nutrition in all living organisms in order to understand energy flow within the ecosystem. Plant produces high energy organic food from inorganic raw materials. They are called autotroph and the mode of nutrition is known as autotrophic nutrition. Animals feed on those high energy organic food, are called as heterotrophs and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition. Heterotrophic nutrition…

  • Botony

    INFLORESCENCE

    The arrangement of flower on the floral axis is called inflorescence. Racemose In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and give off flower laterally in an acropetal manner where old flowers are arranged toward the base and young flowers are at the tip. When peduncle is broad then flowers are centripetally arranged. This is of following different types : Raceme – When peduncle (main axis) is elongated and flowers are pedicellate. eg. Radish, a characteristic feature of Cruciferae family When peduncle is branched and each branch bear pedicellated flowers like racemose and are arranged in acropetal manner known as compound…

  • Biology,  Botony

    LEAF (PHYLLOPODIUM)

    The leaf is a lateral generally flattened structure borne on the stem. The leaves develop from the nodes. Their main function is photosynthesis and food making, axillary buds are found in its axil. All the leaves of a plant are known as phyllome. Axillary bud later develops into a branch. Leaves originated from shoot apical meristem and are arranged in acropetal order. Leaf is divided into 3 main parts : Leaf base (Hypopodium) – Leaves are attached to stem by leaf base. In some plants, leaf base becomes swollen and is called pulvinus which is responsible for sleep movement e.g., Cassia, mimosa, bean. In some plants, leaf base expands into…

  • Botony

    STEM

    Stem is a part of the plant which lies above from surface of soil i.e. it shows negative geotropic growth. It has nodes and internodes. Branches, leaf, flower bud and bracts are developed from nodes. Stem arises from plumule. FORMS OF STEM Caudex: It is unbranched, erect, cylindrical stout stem and marked with scars of fallen leaves. Crown of leaves is present at the top of plant. eg.: Palm Culm: Stem is joined with solid nodes & hollow internodes. eg. Bamboo (Graminae) Excurrent: The branches arise from the main stem in acropetal succession and the tree assumes a cone-like appearance e.g. Pinus, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, etc. Decurrent (Deliquescent): The lateral branches…

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