• Genetics,  Q & A

    Q & A ON CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

    Q 1. Define cell cycle Ans. The sequence of events by which cell duplicates its genome, synthesis of other constituents of the cell and eventually divides into two daughters cell. Q2. Name the phases of cell cycle Ans. A) Interphase B) M Phase Q3. What is the G1phase of the interphase? Ans. The G1 phase Corresponds to interval between mitosis & initiation of DNA replication. Q4. Which phase follows the S phase in the cell cycle? Ans. G2 Phase Q5. What is mitosis? Ans. Cell divides equally to produce identical daughter cell so that they receive an equal number of chromosomes as that of its parents cell.  Q6. What is meiosis? Ans. It…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Q & A

    What is the function of the cell membrane?

    The cell membrane is otherwise called a Plasma membrane. It may be defined as the thin, elastic, semipermeable living membrane that serves as a boundary for the Cytoplasm. The Cell membrane is made up of glycoproteins and phospholipids. The Functions of the Cell membrane are as follows: Cell membrane or Plasma membrane is a semipermeable membrane present around the Protoplasm. It acts as a boundary to the cell. It gives a definite shape to the Cell. It gives Mechanical support to the Cell. It protects cell contents. It regulates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell. The Sites for cell recognition are located on the surface of the Plasma…

  • Q & A

    Q & A ON REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

    Q1. What is life span? Ans: Life span is the period from birth to natural death of an organism. Q2. Define clone. Ans: The individuals that are morphologically and genetically similar to the parent are called clone. Q3. Mention the different means/ methods of asexual reproduction with example. Ans:  Cell division – Protista, Monera Binary fission – Amoeba, Paramecium Budding – Yeast Zoospores (microscopic motile endogenous spores) – aquatic fungi, chlamydomonas Conidia (microscopic immotile exogenous spores)- pencillium External buds – hydra Internal buds like gemmules – sponges (spongilla) Q4.Unicellular organisms are immortal. Justify. Ans: Single celled organisms like amoeba & bacteria reproduce by cell division and there is no natural…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

  • Biochemistry

    CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process as weak so-called “high-energy” bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction. The overall reaction is broken into many smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox…

  • Biology

    COENZYMES

    Enzymes may be simple proteins or complex enzymes. A complex enzyme contains a non-protein part, called a prosthetic group (co-enzymes). Coenzymes are heat stable low molecular weight organic compound. The combined form of protein and the co-enzyme are called as holo-enzyme. The heat labile or unstable part of the holo-enzyme is called as apo-enzyme. The apo-enzyme gives necessary three-dimensional structures required for the enzymatic chemical reaction. Co-enzymes are very essential for the biological activities of the enzyme. Co-enzymes combine loosely with apo-enzyme and are released easily by dialysis. Most of the co-enzymes are derivatives of vitamin B complex group of substance. One molecule of the co-enzyme with its enzyme is sufficient…

  • Biochemistry

    Glycolysis Pathway

    Carbohydrates are the first cellular constituents formed by photosynthetic organisms and result from the fixation of CO2 on the absorption of light. The carbohydrates are metabolized to yield a vast array of other organic compounds, many of which are subsequently utilized as dietary constituents by animals. The animals ingest great quantities of carbohydrates that can be either stored, or oxidized to obtain energy as ATP, or converted to lipids for more efficient energy storage or used for the synthesis of many cellular constituents. The major function of carbohydrates in metabolism is as a fuel to be oxidized and provide energy for other metabolic processes. The carbohydrate is utilized by cells…

  • Biochemistry

    Genetics

    Genetics is a science, which deals with the study and understanding of heredity, evolution, development, ecology, molecular biology and forensic science. A German scientist by name Gregor Johann Mendel was a first founder of Genetics, hence he is also known as the father of genetics. He first demonstrated the inheritance of traits in pea plants and later it was referred to as a Mendelian inheritance. The main concept behind studying genetics are: It explains how the traits are passed from parents to their It explains how the traits are passed from parents to their offsprings. It also explains about the gene and the number of chromosomes present in an individual…

  • Biology,  Cell biology

    WHAT IS CELL?

    [vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]The cell (meaning “small room”) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. All living organisms are made up of building blocks we call the cell. Many living things consist of vast numbers of cells working in concert with one another. A number of cells in an organism varies. The cell is surrounded by a cell or plasma membrane. which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cell consists of different organelles like cell nucleus, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, centrosome, Vacuoles, Ribosome. In some organ­isms, the body is made up of many cells (multicellular) while in others it is made up of a single…