• Biochemistry

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    DIFFERENT MODE OF DIGESTION IN ORGANISMS The collective processes by which a living organism takes food which are necessary for their growth, maintenance and energy needs is called nutrition. The chemical substances present in the food are called nutrients. It is important to know the different modes of nutrition in all living organisms in order to understand energy flow within the ecosystem. Plant produces high energy organic food from inorganic raw materials. They are called autotroph and the mode of nutrition is known as autotrophic nutrition. Animals feed on those high energy organic food, are called as heterotrophs and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition. Heterotrophic nutrition…

  • Biochemistry

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    The word biotechnology has come from two words, bios (meaning biology) and technology (meaning technological application). Thus biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make┬ábest use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology is applied in many areas to produce foods and medicines, in the development of new diagnostic tools, gene therapy, and DNA finger-printing for forensic purposes. Applications of Biotechnology 1. Health and medicine Fighting infectious diseases: Biotechnology is used extensively in the study of infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), and influenza. As a result, more…

  • Biochemistry

    ORIGIN OF LIFE

    The earth was formed about five billion years ago. At that time it was extremely hot. The existence of life in any form at that high temperature was not possible. As such, two questions arise pertaining to life: 1. How did life originate on earth? 2. How did primitive organisms evolve into new forms resulting in the evolution of a variety of organisms on earth? Origin of life means the appearance of simplest primordial life from nonliving matter. Evolution of life means the gradual formation of complex organisms from simpler ones. Chemosynthetic Theory of Origin of Life Several theories have been put forth to explain the origin of life. The…

  • Biochemistry

    Glycolysis Pathway

    Carbohydrates are the first cellular constituents formed by photosynthetic organisms and result from the fixation of CO2 on the absorption of light. The carbohydrates are metabolized to yield a vast array of other organic compounds, many of which are subsequently utilized as dietary constituents by animals. The animals ingest great quantities of carbohydrates that can be either stored, or oxidized to obtain energy as ATP, or converted to lipids for more efficient energy storage or used for the synthesis of many cellular constituents. The major function of carbohydrates in metabolism is as a fuel to be oxidized and provide energy for other metabolic processes. The carbohydrate is utilized by cells…

  • Human anatomy

    Human Eye: Anatomy, parts and structure

    The eye is the photo-receptor organ. Size and shape: Human eye is spherical about 2.5 cm in diameter. Location: it is situated on an orbit of the skull and is supplied by the optic nerve. There are 6 sets of muscles attached to the outer surface of the eyeball which helps to rotate it in a different direction. Four sets of these muscles are straight muscles; superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectal muscle and two sets are oblique muscles; superior and inferior oblique muscles. Structurally two eyes are separated but some of their activities are coordinated so that they function as a pair. The anatomical structure of Eye Eyeball consists…

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