• Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

  • Biochemistry

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    DIFFERENT MODE OF DIGESTION IN ORGANISMS The collective processes by which a living organism takes food which are necessary for their growth, maintenance and energy needs is called nutrition. The chemical substances present in the food are called nutrients. It is important to know the different modes of nutrition in all living organisms in order to understand energy flow within the ecosystem. Plant produces high energy organic food from inorganic raw materials. They are called autotroph and the mode of nutrition is known as autotrophic nutrition. Animals feed on those high energy organic food, are called as heterotrophs and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition. Heterotrophic nutrition…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Tissue

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Biochemistry

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    The word biotechnology has come from two words, bios (meaning biology) and technology (meaning technological application). Thus biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology is applied in many areas to produce foods and medicines, in the development of new diagnostic tools, gene therapy, and DNA finger-printing for forensic purposes. Applications of Biotechnology 1. Health and medicine Fighting infectious diseases: Biotechnology is used extensively in the study of infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), and influenza. As a result, more…

  • Biochemistry

    ORIGIN OF LIFE

    The earth was formed about five billion years ago. At that time it was extremely hot. The existence of life in any form at that high temperature was not possible. As such, two questions arise pertaining to life: 1. How did life originate on earth? 2. How did primitive organisms evolve into new forms resulting in the evolution of a variety of organisms on earth? Origin of life means the appearance of simplest primordial life from nonliving matter. Evolution of life means the gradual formation of complex organisms from simpler ones. Chemosynthetic Theory of Origin of Life Several theories have been put forth to explain the origin of life. The…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    ENZYMES

    The global life depends on a series of chemical reactions. Most of the chemical reactions proceed too slowly on their own to sustain life. Hence catalysts are required to greatly accelerate the rates of these chemical reactions. In nature enzymes posses the catalytic power to facilitate life processes in essentially all life-forms from viruses to man. Most of the enzymes retain their catalytic potential even after extraction from the living organism. The above catalytic power of enzyme leads to commercial usage of enzymes. In ancient days enzymes are used in manufacture of cheeses, breads, and alcoholic beverages, and for the tenderizing of meats. Today enzymes are also of fundamental interest…

  • Zoology

    EAR ANATOMY

    The ear is the organ found in animals which are designed to perceive sounds. Most animals have some sort of ear to perceive sounds, which are actually high-frequency vibrations caused by the movement of objects in the environment. The human ear picks up and interprets high-frequency vibrations of air, while the sound-sensing organs of aquatic animals are designed to pick up high-frequency vibrations in water. Most vertebrates have two ears: one on either side of the head. In some animals, including most mammals, the ear is also used for balance. In humans, the inner ear contains parts called the semicircular canals, where otoliths – tiny stone-like structures – shift in…