• Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

  • Biochemistry

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    DIFFERENT MODE OF DIGESTION IN ORGANISMS The collective processes by which a living organism takes food which are necessary for their growth, maintenance and energy needs is called nutrition. The chemical substances present in the food are called nutrients. It is important to know the different modes of nutrition in all living organisms in order to understand energy flow within the ecosystem. Plant produces high energy organic food from inorganic raw materials. They are called autotroph and the mode of nutrition is known as autotrophic nutrition. Animals feed on those high energy organic food, are called as heterotrophs and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition. Heterotrophic nutrition…

  • Biology,  Zoology

    Animal Tissue

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Botony

    INFLORESCENCE

    The arrangement of flower on the floral axis is called inflorescence. Racemose In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and give off flower laterally in an acropetal manner where old flowers are arranged toward the base and young flowers are at the tip. When peduncle is broad then flowers are centripetally arranged. This is of following different types : Raceme – When peduncle (main axis) is elongated and flowers are pedicellate. eg. Radish, a characteristic feature of Cruciferae family When peduncle is branched and each branch bear pedicellated flowers like racemose and are arranged in acropetal manner known as compound…

  • Biology,  Botony

    LEAF (PHYLLOPODIUM)

    The leaf is a lateral generally flattened structure borne on the stem. The leaves develop from the nodes. Their main function is photosynthesis and food making, axillary buds are found in its axil. All the leaves of a plant are known as phyllome. Axillary bud later develops into a branch. Leaves originated from shoot apical meristem and are arranged in acropetal order. Leaf is divided into 3 main parts : Leaf base (Hypopodium) – Leaves are attached to stem by leaf base. In some plants, leaf base becomes swollen and is called pulvinus which is responsible for sleep movement e.g., Cassia, mimosa, bean. In some plants, leaf base expands into…

  • Botony

    STEM

    Stem is a part of the plant which lies above from surface of soil i.e. it shows negative geotropic growth. It has nodes and internodes. Branches, leaf, flower bud and bracts are developed from nodes. Stem arises from plumule. FORMS OF STEM Caudex: It is unbranched, erect, cylindrical stout stem and marked with scars of fallen leaves. Crown of leaves is present at the top of plant. eg.: Palm Culm: Stem is joined with solid nodes & hollow internodes. eg. Bamboo (Graminae) Excurrent: The branches arise from the main stem in acropetal succession and the tree assumes a cone-like appearance e.g. Pinus, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, etc. Decurrent (Deliquescent): The lateral branches…

  • Botony

    NITROGEN METABOLISM

    All the living organisms are basically composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and many other forms of chemical elements. These elements contribute to finally organize various biomolecules present in a cell. Nitrogen is next to carbon in importance in living organisms. In a living cell, nitrogen is an important constituent of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins, alkaloids and some growth hormones. Therefore, study of nitrogen metabolism is absolutely essential because the entire life process is dependent on these nitrogen-containing molecules. MOLECULAR NITROGEN Nitrogen is primarily present in the atmosphere freely as dinitrogen or nitrogen gas. It is present in the combined form as Chile saltpetre or sodium nitrate and Chile…

  • Biochemistry

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    The word biotechnology has come from two words, bios (meaning biology) and technology (meaning technological application). Thus biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology is applied in many areas to produce foods and medicines, in the development of new diagnostic tools, gene therapy, and DNA finger-printing for forensic purposes. Applications of Biotechnology 1. Health and medicine Fighting infectious diseases: Biotechnology is used extensively in the study of infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), and influenza. As a result, more…

  • Biochemistry

    ORIGIN OF LIFE

    The earth was formed about five billion years ago. At that time it was extremely hot. The existence of life in any form at that high temperature was not possible. As such, two questions arise pertaining to life: 1. How did life originate on earth? 2. How did primitive organisms evolve into new forms resulting in the evolution of a variety of organisms on earth? Origin of life means the appearance of simplest primordial life from nonliving matter. Evolution of life means the gradual formation of complex organisms from simpler ones. Chemosynthetic Theory of Origin of Life Several theories have been put forth to explain the origin of life. The…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    ENZYMES

    The global life depends on a series of chemical reactions. Most of the chemical reactions proceed too slowly on their own to sustain life. Hence catalysts are required to greatly accelerate the rates of these chemical reactions. In nature enzymes posses the catalytic power to facilitate life processes in essentially all life-forms from viruses to man. Most of the enzymes retain their catalytic potential even after extraction from the living organism. The above catalytic power of enzyme leads to commercial usage of enzymes. In ancient days enzymes are used in manufacture of cheeses, breads, and alcoholic beverages, and for the tenderizing of meats. Today enzymes are also of fundamental interest…

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