General Q&A part-3

Camels have evolved to survive in harsh desert environments, where water is often scarce and temperatures can be extremely high. One of the adaptations that helps camels conserve water is their long loop of Henle in their kidneys.

The loop of Henle is a part of the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney responsible for filtering and regulating the composition of urine. It plays a crucial role in concentrating urine and conserving water. The longer the loop of Henle, the more effective it is at reabsorbing water from the urine.

In camels, the long loop of Henle allows for the reabsorption of a significant amount of water from their urine, resulting in highly concentrated urine with minimal water content. This adaptation helps camels retain as much water as possible, which is essential for their survival in arid environments.

Camels also have other water-conservation adaptations, such as the ability to tolerate higher body temperatures and reduce sweat production when they are dehydrated. These combined adaptations make camels well-suited for desert life, where access to water can be limited, and the ability to conserve every drop is vital for their survival.

Analysis is the process of examining, evaluating, and interpreting information, data, or a particular subject to gain a deeper understanding, draw conclusions, or make informed decisions. It involves breaking down complex topics, problems, or data into smaller, more manageable parts to identify patterns, relationships, and insights. Analysis is a fundamental aspect of various fields and disciplines, including:

  1. Data Analysis: In fields such as statistics, data science, and business analytics, analysis involves examining datasets to discover trends, correlations, and meaningful insights. It often includes techniques like data visualization, statistical tests, and predictive modeling.

  2. Literary Analysis: In literature and literary studies, analysis involves examining and interpreting literary works, such as books, poems, or plays, to uncover themes, symbolism, character development, and narrative techniques.

  3. Financial Analysis: In finance, analysts assess financial statements, market trends, and economic indicators to evaluate the performance and health of companies and investment opportunities.

  4. Scientific Analysis: In the natural and social sciences, researchers analyze data from experiments, observations, or surveys to test hypotheses and draw conclusions about phenomena and processes.

  5. Policy Analysis: In public policy and political science, analysts evaluate the impact and effectiveness of policies, laws, and government actions to inform decision-making.

  6. Business Analysis: Business analysts examine various aspects of organizations, including processes, systems, and strategies, to identify areas for improvement and optimize operations.

  7. Textual Analysis: In fields like linguistics and communication studies, textual analysis involves examining written or spoken language to analyze communication patterns, discourse, and content.

  8. Market Analysis: Market analysts study market conditions, consumer behavior, and competitive landscapes to provide insights for businesses to make informed marketing and strategic decisions.

  9. Environmental Analysis: Environmental scientists assess environmental data and factors like climate change, pollution, and ecosystem health to understand and address environmental challenges.

The specific methods and tools used in analysis can vary widely depending on the field and the nature of the data or subject being analyzed. It often involves critical thinking, problem-solving, and the application of relevant theories or models to draw meaningful conclusions or make recommendations based on the findings.

Genetics is the scientific study of genes and heredity, and it deals with understanding how traits are passed from one generation to another.

1. Genes are like Instructions: Start by comparing genes to a set of instructions or a recipe in a cookbook. Just like a recipe tells you how to make a specific dish, genes contain the instructions for making different traits or characteristics in living organisms.

2. Traits are the Outcomes: Explain that these instructions (genes) determine various traits in living things. Traits are the physical or biological characteristics that make each individual unique. Some examples of traits include eye color, hair type, height, and the ability to roll your tongue.

3. Inheritance: Genetics also involves how these instructions (genes) are passed from one generation to the next. This process is similar to how parents pass on their recipes to their children. Children inherit a combination of genes from their parents, which influences their traits.

4. Dominant and Recessive Genes: Introduce the idea of dominant and recessive genes. Explain that some genes are more influential than others in determining traits. Dominant genes “win” over recessive genes and tend to express themselves in an individual’s traits. Recessive genes are less influential and only show their effects when both copies of a gene are recessive.

5. Punnett Squares: You can use Punnett squares to illustrate how genes from two parents combine to create the traits of their offspring. This visual tool helps students understand the probability of certain traits appearing in the next generation.

6. Genetic Variation: Emphasize that genetic variation is essential for the diversity of living organisms. Explain that even within a family, siblings can have different combinations of traits because they inherit a unique mix of genes from their parents.

7. Genetic Disorders: Mention that sometimes there can be changes or mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or conditions. These can affect an individual’s health or traits, such as Down syndrome or cystic fibrosis.

8. DNA and Chromosomes: If appropriate for your students’ age and understanding, introduce the concept of DNA and chromosomes. Explain that genes are made up of DNA and that they are organized into structures called chromosomes.

9. Real-Life Examples: Use relatable examples from everyday life or from nature to illustrate genetic concepts. For instance, you can discuss why children often resemble their parents in terms of traits or how dogs of the same breed share certain characteristics.

Overall, make sure to use age-appropriate language and visuals to engage your students and help them grasp the basic concepts of genetics. Encourage questions and discussions to ensure that they have a clear understanding of this fascinating field of science.

Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that plays a crucial role in the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and the return of carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, from the tissues to the lungs for exhalation. Hemoglobin is essential for the respiratory process and is a key component of the circulatory system.

Here are some key characteristics and functions of hemoglobin:

  1. Structure: Hemoglobin is a complex protein composed of four subunits, each of which contains an iron atom at its center. The iron atom binds to oxygen molecules, allowing hemoglobin to carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.

  2. Oxygen Transport: When you inhale, oxygen from the air is absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs. Hemoglobin in red blood cells binds to oxygen in the lungs, forming oxyhemoglobin. This oxygen-rich hemoglobin is then transported by the bloodstream to various tissues and organs where it releases oxygen to support cellular respiration.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Transport: Hemoglobin also plays a role in the transport of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by cells during metabolism. Hemoglobin can bind to CO2 and carry it away from tissues to the lungs, where CO2 is released and exhaled.

  4. Color: Hemoglobin gives red blood cells their characteristic red color. The iron atom in hemoglobin is responsible for this coloration.

  5. pH Regulation: Hemoglobin can also help regulate the pH of the blood by acting as a buffer. It can bind to hydrogen ions (H+), helping to maintain the blood’s acidity within a narrow and optimal range.

  6. Variants: There are different types of hemoglobin in the human body. The most common type in adults is hemoglobin A (HbA), which is made up of two alpha and two beta subunits. Variations in the genes that code for hemoglobin can lead to different forms of hemoglobin, such as hemoglobin S (HbS) in sickle cell disease or hemoglobin C (HbC) in another type of hemoglobinopathy.

Hemoglobin’s ability to bind and release oxygen as needed is essential for the proper functioning of the body’s cells and tissues. Any abnormalities or deficiencies in hemoglobin can lead to health conditions, including anemia (a deficiency of hemoglobin) or genetic hemoglobinopathies like sickle cell disease, where there are mutations in the genes responsible for producing hemoglobin.

The enzyme produced by the wall of the stomach is called “pepsin.” Pepsin is an enzyme secreted by specialized cells in the stomach lining known as chief cells. Its primary function is to help break down proteins into smaller peptide fragments during the process of digestion. Pepsin works in the highly acidic environment of the stomach, where the acidic conditions activate it and enable it to cleave peptide bonds in proteins, thereby aiding in the initial stages of protein digestion.

The human body produces various waste products as a result of its metabolic processes. Five common waste products in the human body include:

  1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular respiration, where cells use oxygen to generate energy from glucose. CO2 is transported in the blood to the lungs, where it is exhaled during the process of breathing.

  2. Urea: Urea is a nitrogenous waste product formed in the liver as a result of the breakdown of proteins and amino acids. It is then excreted by the kidneys in the urine. The removal of urea helps regulate the body’s nitrogen balance.

  3. Creatinine: Creatinine is another nitrogenous waste product that results from the breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscles. It is also excreted by the kidneys and can serve as a marker of kidney function.

  4. Ammonia: Ammonia is produced as a byproduct of various metabolic processes, including the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids. The liver converts ammonia into urea, which is less toxic and easier to excrete.

  5. Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a waste product formed during the breakdown of heme, a component of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted into the bile. It is responsible for the yellow color of bile and can accumulate in the blood when liver function is impaired, leading to jaundice.

These waste products are eliminated from the body through various organs and systems, including the lungs (for CO2), the urinary system (for urea and creatinine), and the liver and gallbladder (for bilirubin). Proper elimination of waste products is essential for maintaining the body’s metabolic balance and overall health.

A gene is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for building a specific protein or set of proteins, which in turn determine specific traits or functions in an organism. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity, and they play a central role in the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

Here’s how genes work and how they are “made”:

  1. DNA Structure: Genes are composed of DNA, which is a double-stranded molecule that resembles a twisted ladder (the famous “double helix” structure). DNA is made up of four chemical building blocks called nucleotides: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). The sequence of these nucleotides in a gene determines the genetic code.

  2. Gene Location: Genes are located at specific positions on chromosomes, which are long, thread-like structures found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells (like those in humans). Each chromosome contains many genes.

  3. Transcription: The process of making a protein from a gene begins with a biological process called transcription. During transcription, the DNA double helix unwinds, and an enzyme called RNA polymerase reads one strand of the DNA and synthesizes a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA carries a copy of the genetic information from the gene to the ribosomes.

  4. Translation: After transcription, the mRNA exits the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it encounters ribosomes. Ribosomes are cellular structures that “read” the mRNA code in groups of three nucleotides, called codons. Each codon corresponds to a specific amino acid.

  5. Amino Acid Chain: As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, it recruits transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules that carry specific amino acids. These amino acids are joined together in a specific sequence dictated by the mRNA codons to form a polypeptide chain. This chain will eventually fold into a functional protein.

  6. Protein Folding and Function: Once the polypeptide chain is synthesized, it undergoes a process called protein folding. Protein folding determines the final three-dimensional structure of the protein, which is crucial for its function. The specific function of the protein depends on its structure, and proteins can serve a wide range of roles in the body, from enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions to structural components and signaling molecules.

In summary, genes are made up of DNA and serve as the blueprints for building proteins. The process involves transcription of the gene into mRNA and translation of the mRNA into a sequence of amino acids, ultimately resulting in the formation of a functional protein. The sequence of nucleotides in a gene’s DNA determines the specific sequence of amino acids in the protein, which, in turn, determines the protein’s function and the traits it influences in an organism.

WHO stands for the “World Health Organization.” It is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO was established on April 7, 1948, and its headquarters are located in Geneva, Switzerland. The organization’s primary objective is to promote and protect global health, monitor and assess health trends, provide technical assistance and support to countries in healthcare matters, and coordinate international responses to health emergencies and pandemics. The WHO plays a crucial role in setting health standards, conducting research, and implementing programs to improve health and well-being worldwide.

The artery that supplies blood to the kidney is called the “renal artery.”

The definition of life is a complex and philosophically debated concept, but in biological terms, life is often characterized by several key attributes:

  1. Organization: Living organisms are highly organized structures composed of cells, which are the basic units of life. These cells contain genetic material and carry out various functions necessary for survival.

  2. Metabolism: Life involves metabolic processes, which are the chemical reactions that occur within an organism to maintain life. These processes include the conversion of nutrients into energy and the synthesis of molecules essential for growth and maintenance.

  3. Homeostasis: Living organisms have the ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. This process is called homeostasis and is crucial for the proper functioning of cells and tissues.

  4. Growth and Development: Living organisms can grow and develop over time. This involves an increase in size and complexity, as well as changes in form and function.

  5. Reproduction: One of the fundamental characteristics of life is the ability to reproduce, either sexually or asexually, to create offspring or new generations.

  6. Response to Stimuli: Living organisms can respond to external and internal stimuli, allowing them to adapt to their environment. This includes behaviors and physiological responses to changes in the surroundings.

  7. Evolution: Living organisms can evolve over generations through the process of natural selection, leading to changes in species characteristics over time.

It’s important to note that defining life becomes more complex when considering non-biological entities, such as artificial intelligence or hypothetical extraterrestrial life forms. In philosophy and other fields, the definition of life can be a subject of debate and exploration beyond the biological aspects mentioned above.

The study of morphology and physiology is essential in the field of biology and related disciplines for several important reasons:

  1. Understanding Organisms: Morphology (the study of form and structure) and physiology (the study of how living organisms function) provide fundamental insights into the characteristics and workings of living organisms. This knowledge is crucial for comprehending the diversity of life on Earth.

  2. Classification and Taxonomy: Morphological characteristics, such as the shape and structure of organisms, play a central role in the classification and taxonomy of species. Scientists use these traits to categorize and differentiate between species, which is vital for organizing and understanding the natural world.

  3. Health and Medicine: In the medical field, an understanding of the physiological processes in the human body is essential for diagnosing and treating diseases. Physicians and healthcare professionals rely on knowledge of human physiology to maintain health and address medical issues.

  4. Biomedical Research: Researchers study the physiology of organisms to gain insights into disease mechanisms, drug development, and the functioning of biological systems. This research is critical for advancements in healthcare and medicine.

  5. Ecology and Environmental Science: Understanding the physiology of organisms helps ecologists and environmental scientists study the interactions between species and their environments. This knowledge is vital for conservation efforts and managing ecosystems.

  6. Agriculture and Food Production: Morphological and physiological studies of plants and animals are essential for improving agricultural practices, breeding programs, and food production efficiency. This knowledge contributes to addressing global food security challenges.

  7. Evolutionary Biology: The study of morphology and physiology is integral to understanding the evolutionary history of species. By examining how traits have evolved over time, scientists can reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between organisms.

  8. Education and Training: Morphology and physiology are fundamental subjects in biology education. They provide the foundation for students pursuing careers in various biological fields, from medicine to research.

  9. Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering: Engineers and scientists working in biotechnology and biomedical engineering use knowledge of morphology and physiology to develop medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and therapies.

In summary, the study of morphology and physiology is central to our understanding of life, its diversity, and its functioning. It has practical applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, ecology, and biotechnology, contributing to advancements in science and improvements in human well-being.

The number of muscles in the human body can vary slightly from person to person due to individual variations and the presence of small, accessory muscles. However, on average, there are approximately 650 to 850 skeletal muscles in the human body. These muscles are responsible for various movements, from simple ones like blinking your eyes to complex movements like running and jumping. These muscles are attached to bones by tendons and are under voluntary control, allowing you to move and perform a wide range of activities.

The primary function of the lungs is to facilitate the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the external environment. Here are the key functions of the lungs:

  1. Gas Exchange: The lungs are responsible for oxygenating the blood and removing carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide is released from the bloodstream into the lungs to be exhaled.

  2. Respiration: The process of respiration, which includes both inhalation and exhalation, allows the body to take in fresh oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. This is essential for providing oxygen to all cells and tissues in the body, which is necessary for energy production through cellular respiration.

  3. Filtering and Humidifying Air: As air is inhaled through the nose and mouth, the respiratory system filters out impurities and humidifies the air, preparing it for optimal gas exchange in the lungs. This helps protect the delicate lung tissues from harm.

  4. Immune Defense: The lungs are equipped with a mucous lining and cilia (tiny hair-like structures) that trap and remove foreign particles, such as dust and pathogens, from the air. This helps protect the respiratory system from infections.

  5. Regulation of Blood pH: The lungs play a role in regulating the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the blood by controlling the levels of carbon dioxide. When carbon dioxide levels rise in the blood, it can lead to a decrease in blood pH (acidosis), and the lungs help remove excess carbon dioxide to maintain proper pH levels.

  6. Respiratory Control: The respiratory center in the brainstem regulates breathing rate and depth to ensure that the body receives an adequate supply of oxygen and removes excess carbon dioxide. Breathing is typically an involuntary process but can also be consciously controlled to some extent.

  7. Speech and Sound Production: The flow of air through the vocal cords in the larynx (voice box), which is part of the respiratory system, allows for speech and sound production.

Overall, the lungs are vital organs that enable the body to obtain oxygen for cellular respiration, remove carbon dioxide, maintain acid-base balance, and provide protection against harmful substances in the air. Proper lung function is essential for overall health and well-being.

Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. It examines how organisms interact with each other and with the non-living components of their surroundings, including factors like air, water, soil, climate, and other physical and chemical elements. Ecology seeks to understand the distribution and abundance of organisms, their behaviors, and how they adapt to and affect their environments.

Key concepts within ecology include:

  1. Ecosystems: An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (biotic components) interacting with their physical and chemical environment (abiotic components). Examples of ecosystems include forests, wetlands, oceans, and deserts.

  2. Populations: A population consists of all the individuals of a single species that live in a particular area at the same time. Ecologists study population dynamics, including factors affecting population growth, decline, and distribution.

  3. Communities: A community is a group of different species living in the same area and interacting with each other. Ecologists examine species interactions, such as competition, predation, and mutualism, within communities.

  4. Habitats and Niches: Habitats are specific environments where organisms live, while niches refer to the roles and positions that species occupy within their ecosystems. The concept of ecological niches helps explain how species coexist and adapt to their environments.

  5. Biomes: Biomes are large geographic regions characterized by similar climate, vegetation, and animal life. Examples include tropical rainforests, grasslands, and tundra. Ecologists study the distribution of biomes and the species that inhabit them.

  6. Energy Flow: Ecologists examine the flow of energy through ecosystems, tracking how energy is captured by producers (plants), transferred to consumers (animals), and eventually lost as heat.

  7. Nutrient Cycling: Nutrient cycles, such as the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, describe the movement of essential elements through ecosystems. Understanding these cycles is crucial for ecosystem health.

  8. Biodiversity: Biodiversity refers to the variety of species and genetic diversity within an ecosystem or on a global scale. Ecologists investigate the factors that influence biodiversity and its importance for ecosystem stability and resilience.

Ecology has practical applications in various fields, including conservation biology, environmental science, agriculture, and resource management. It provides insights into how ecosystems function, the impacts of human activities on the environment, and strategies for sustainable use of natural resources. Ecological research is vital for addressing environmental challenges and making informed decisions to protect ecosystems and the planet’s biodiversity.

“Krebs” is often used as an informal abbreviation for the Krebs cycle, which is also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The Krebs cycle is a central metabolic pathway that occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is involved in the aerobic respiration of glucose and other organic molecules.

During the Krebs cycle, acetyl-CoA (a two-carbon compound derived from the breakdown of glucose or fatty acids) is oxidized to carbon dioxide. This process generates high-energy electrons, which are then used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that stores and transfers energy within cells. The Krebs cycle also produces important intermediates that are used in other metabolic pathways.

The Krebs cycle is a critical part of cellular respiration, where the energy stored in glucose and other nutrients is gradually released to produce ATP. It’s named after Sir Hans Krebs, a German-born British biochemist who elucidated the cycle’s key reactions in the 1930s and 1940s.

  1. Chromosomes: Chromosomes are thread-like structures found in the cell nucleus of eukaryotic organisms, such as plants and animals. They contain DNA, which carries genetic information. Chromosomes come in pairs, with one inherited from each parent, and play a crucial role in passing on genetic traits to offspring during reproduction.

  2. Genes: Genes are segments of DNA located on chromosomes. They are the basic units of heredity and contain instructions for building and maintaining an organism. Genes determine specific traits or characteristics, such as eye color or blood type. Each individual typically has two copies (alleles) of each gene, one inherited from each parent.

  3. Characters and Traits: Characters are broad categories of hereditary features in organisms, like hair color or height. Traits, on the other hand, are specific variations within a character, such as black or blonde hair. Traits are the observable outcomes of genetic differences (alleles) within a gene.

  4. Gametes: Gametes are specialized reproductive cells that have half the usual number of chromosomes found in a somatic (body) cell. In humans, gametes are sperm cells in males and egg cells (ova) in females. During sexual reproduction, two gametes (one from each parent) fuse to form a zygote with a full set of chromosomes, which eventually develops into a new individual. Gametes are responsible for passing genetic material from one generation to the next.

Viruses and bacteria are both types of microorganisms, but they differ significantly in terms of structure, life cycle, replication, and the impact they have on living organisms. Here are some key differences between viruses and bacteria:

  1. Structure:

    • Viruses: Viruses are much smaller and simpler than bacteria. They consist of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid envelope.
    • Bacteria: Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with a more complex cellular structure. They have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material (DNA) in the form of a single, circular chromosome.
  2. Living or Non-Living:

    • Viruses: Viruses are considered non-living entities because they cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. They require a host cell to replicate and multiply.
    • Bacteria: Bacteria are living organisms because they can carry out metabolic processes, grow, and reproduce independently.
  3. Replication:

    • Viruses: Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. They cannot reproduce outside of a host cell. They inject their genetic material into a host cell, hijack the cell’s machinery, and use it to replicate and produce more viruses.
    • Bacteria: Bacteria reproduce through binary fission, a process in which one bacterial cell splits into two identical daughter cells under the right conditions. They can grow and multiply independently in various environments.
  4. Treatment:

    • Viruses: Viral infections are typically treated with antiviral medications that target specific aspects of the viral life cycle. Vaccines can also prevent some viral infections.
    • Bacteria: Bacterial infections are often treated with antibiotics, which can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, antibiotic resistance is a growing concern.
  5. Disease and Impact:

    • Viruses: Viruses are responsible for a wide range of diseases in humans and other organisms, including the common cold, influenza, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19, and many more.
    • Bacteria: Bacteria can also cause diseases, but they are also essential for various ecological processes and are used in beneficial applications like fermentation (e.g., in yogurt production) and bioremediation (cleaning up environmental pollution).
  6. Genetic Material:

    • Viruses: Viruses can have either DNA or RNA as their genetic material, but never both. Their genetic material can be single-stranded or double-stranded.
    • Bacteria: Bacteria always have DNA as their genetic material, and their DNA is double-stranded.

In summary, viruses and bacteria are distinct types of microorganisms with different structures, life cycles, and impacts on living organisms. Understanding these differences is important in the fields of microbiology, medicine, and public health.

Malaria is not considered a communicable disease in the same way that diseases like the common cold or flu are. Communicable diseases, also known as contagious or infectious diseases, are typically transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another. Malaria, on the other hand, is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, which are vectors for the malaria parasite.

Here’s how malaria is typically transmitted:

  1. Mosquito Bite: An infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injects the malaria parasite (Plasmodium) into the person’s bloodstream.

  2. Human Host: The parasite then travels to the person’s liver and starts to multiply.

  3. Bloodstream: After maturing in the liver, the parasites are released into the person’s bloodstream, where they infect red blood cells and continue to multiply.

  4. Cycle Continues: The cycle of infection continues as more mosquitoes bite infected individuals and become carriers of the parasite.

While malaria is not considered directly contagious from person to person through casual contact, it is indirectly communicable in areas where malaria is endemic. In these regions, the presence of infected individuals can lead to an increased number of infected mosquitoes, which can then transmit the disease to others.

Preventive measures against malaria include the use of bed nets, insect repellents, antimalarial medications, and efforts to control mosquito populations. Travelers to regions where malaria is prevalent are often advised to take precautions to avoid mosquito bites and may be prescribed antimalarial drugs for protection.






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