• Diffusion
    Cell biology,  O level biology

    Diffusion – Movement of Substances

    Table of Contents Diffusion Defination Diffusion is the net movement of molecules and ions from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement. What is Diffusion ┬áThe molecules of a gas such as oxygen are moving about all the time. So are the molecules of a liquid or a substance such as sugar dissolved in water. As a result of this movement, the molecules spread themselves out evenly to fill all the available space (Figure). Diffusion This process is called diffusion. How are substances transported by diffusion? One effect of diffusion is that the…

  • A level biology,  Video Notes

    Osmosis

    If a dilute solution is separated from a concentrated solution by a partially permeable membrane, water diffuses across the membrane from the dilute to the concentrated solution. This is known as osmosis. A partially permeable membrane is porous but allows water to pass through more rapidly than dissolved substances. Since a dilute solution contains, in effect, more water molecules than a concentrated solution, there is a diffusion gradient which favours the passage of water from the dilute solution to the concentrated solution. In living cells, the cell membrane is partially permeable and the cytoplasm and vacuole (in plant cells) contain dissolved substances. As a consequence, water tends to diffuse into…