• Biochemistry

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    The word biotechnology has come from two words, bios (meaning biology) and technology (meaning technological application). Thus biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make┬ábest use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology is applied in many areas to produce foods and medicines, in the development of new diagnostic tools, gene therapy, and DNA finger-printing for forensic purposes. Applications of Biotechnology 1. Health and medicine Fighting infectious diseases: Biotechnology is used extensively in the study of infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), and influenza. As a result, more…

  • Biochemistry

    ORIGIN OF LIFE

    The earth was formed about five billion years ago. At that time it was extremely hot. The existence of life in any form at that high temperature was not possible. As such, two questions arise pertaining to life: 1. How did life originate on earth? 2. How did primitive organisms evolve into new forms resulting in the evolution of a variety of organisms on earth? Origin of life means the appearance of simplest primordial life from nonliving matter. Evolution of life means the gradual formation of complex organisms from simpler ones. Chemosynthetic Theory of Origin of Life Several theories have been put forth to explain the origin of life. The…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    ENZYMES

    The global life depends on a series of chemical reactions. Most of the chemical reactions proceed too slowly on their own to sustain life. Hence catalysts are required to greatly accelerate the rates of these chemical reactions. In nature enzymes posses the catalytic power to facilitate life processes in essentially all life-forms from viruses to man. Most of the enzymes retain their catalytic potential even after extraction from the living organism. The above catalytic power of enzyme leads to commercial usage of enzymes. In ancient days enzymes are used in manufacture of cheeses, breads, and alcoholic beverages, and for the tenderizing of meats. Today enzymes are also of fundamental interest…

  • Biochemistry

    COMPONENTS OF THE CELL

    The major components of the cell are cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus Cell membrane (Plasma membrane) Each cell has a limiting boundary, the cell membrane, plasma membrane or plasmalemma. It is a living membrane, outermost in animal cells but internal to cell wall in plant cells. It is flexible and can fold in (as in food vacuoles of Amoeba) or fold out (as in the formation of pseudopodia of Amoeba) The plasma membrane is made of proteins and lipids and several models were of Life proposed regarding the arrangement of proteins and lipids. The fluid mosaic model proposed by Singer and Nicholson (1972) is widely accepted. According to the fluid mosaic model,…

  • Biochemistry

    CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process as weak so-called “high-energy” bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction. The overall reaction is broken into many smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox…

  • Biochemistry

    Glycolysis Pathway

    Carbohydrates are the first cellular constituents formed by photosynthetic organisms and result from the fixation of CO2 on the absorption of light. The carbohydrates are metabolized to yield a vast array of other organic compounds, many of which are subsequently utilized as dietary constituents by animals. The animals ingest great quantities of carbohydrates that can be either stored, or oxidized to obtain energy as ATP, or converted to lipids for more efficient energy storage or used for the synthesis of many cellular constituents. The major function of carbohydrates in metabolism is as a fuel to be oxidized and provide energy for other metabolic processes. The carbohydrate is utilized by cells…

  • Biochemistry

    Genetics

    Genetics is a science, which deals with the study and understanding of heredity, evolution, development, ecology, molecular biology and forensic science. A German scientist by name Gregor Johann Mendel was a first founder of Genetics, hence he is also known as the father of genetics. He first demonstrated the inheritance of traits in pea plants and later it was referred to as a Mendelian inheritance. The main concept behind studying genetics are: It explains how the traits are passed from parents to their It explains how the traits are passed from parents to their offsprings. It also explains about the gene and the number of chromosomes present in an individual…

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