• Biochemistry

    HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

    The origin of human nervous system is ectodermal. The whole nervous system is divided into three parts. Central Nervous System It comprises the brain and the spinal cord. Brain Brain accommodate in the skull while spinal cord is enclosed by the vertebral column. To support brain and protect it from external pressures, it is surrounded by a covering of triple membrane of connective tissue called the meninges. The three layers of meninges are duramater, arachnoid and piamater. The innermost layer, piamater is thin, delicate and highly vascular. It is firmly adhere to the brain. The middle layer is arachnoid membrane, which is thin and highly folded structure in front of…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. The inner mitochondrial membrane carries an electron transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain,…

  • Biochemistry

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    DIFFERENT MODE OF DIGESTION IN ORGANISMS The collective processes by which a living organism takes food which are necessary for their growth, maintenance and energy needs is called nutrition. The chemical substances present in the food are called nutrients. It is important to know the different modes of nutrition in all living organisms in order to understand energy flow within the ecosystem. Plant produces high energy organic food from inorganic raw materials. They are called autotroph and the mode of nutrition is known as autotrophic nutrition. Animals feed on those high energy organic food, are called as heterotrophs and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition. Heterotrophic nutrition…

  • Biochemistry

    BIOTECHNOLOGY

    The word biotechnology has come from two words, bios (meaning biology) and technology (meaning technological application). Thus biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology is applied in many areas to produce foods and medicines, in the development of new diagnostic tools, gene therapy, and DNA finger-printing for forensic purposes. Applications of Biotechnology 1. Health and medicine Fighting infectious diseases: Biotechnology is used extensively in the study of infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), and influenza. As a result, more…

  • Biochemistry

    ORIGIN OF LIFE

    The earth was formed about five billion years ago. At that time it was extremely hot. The existence of life in any form at that high temperature was not possible. As such, two questions arise pertaining to life: 1. How did life originate on earth? 2. How did primitive organisms evolve into new forms resulting in the evolution of a variety of organisms on earth? Origin of life means the appearance of simplest primordial life from nonliving matter. Evolution of life means the gradual formation of complex organisms from simpler ones. Chemosynthetic Theory of Origin of Life Several theories have been put forth to explain the origin of life. The…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    ENZYMES

    The global life depends on a series of chemical reactions. Most of the chemical reactions proceed too slowly on their own to sustain life. Hence catalysts are required to greatly accelerate the rates of these chemical reactions. In nature enzymes posses the catalytic power to facilitate life processes in essentially all life-forms from viruses to man. Most of the enzymes retain their catalytic potential even after extraction from the living organism. The above catalytic power of enzyme leads to commercial usage of enzymes. In ancient days enzymes are used in manufacture of cheeses, breads, and alcoholic beverages, and for the tenderizing of meats. Today enzymes are also of fundamental interest…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    CELL MEMBRANE

    The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a double layer of lipids and proteins that surrounds a cell and separates the cytoplasm (the contents of the cell) from its surrounding environment. It is selectively permeable, which means that it only lets certain molecules enter and exit. It can also control the amount of some substances that go into or out of the cell. All cells have a cell membrane.  Function of the Cell Membrane The cell membrane gives the cell its structure and regulates the materials that enter and leave the cell. Like a drawbridge intended to protect a castle and keep out enemies, the cell membrane only…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Genetics

    RNA

    Structurally speaking, ribonucleic acid (RNA), is quite similar to DNA. However, whereas DNA molecules are typically long and double-stranded, RNA molecules are much shorter and are typically single-stranded. RNA molecules perform a variety of roles in the cell but are mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis (translation) and its regulation. RNA Structure RNA is typically single-stranded and is made of ribonucleotides that are linked by phosphodiester bonds. A ribonucleotide in the RNA chain contains ribose (the pentose sugar), one of the four nitrogenous bases (A, U, G, and C), and a phosphate group. The subtle structural difference between the sugars gives DNA added stability, making DNA more suitable for storage of genetic information,…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Genetics

    DNA REPLICATION

    DNA duplicates itself with complete fidelity for passing on genetic information to the next generation of cells. Replication may thus be defined as a mechanism for transmission of genetic information generation after generation. DNA Replication is Semi-Conservative DNA replication of one helix of DNA results in two identical helices. If the original DNA helix is called the “parental” DNA, the two resulting helices can be called “daughter” helices. Each of these two daughter helices is a nearly exact copy of the parental helix (it is not 100% the same due to mutations). DNA creates “daughters” by using the parental strands of DNA as a template or guide. Each newly synthesized…

  • Biochemistry

    RIBOSOMES

    While examining the animal and plant cell through a microscope, you might have seen numerous organelles that work together to complete the cell activities. One of the essential cell organelles are ribosomes, which are in charge of protein synthesis. The ribosome is a complex made of protein and RNA and which adds up to numerous million Daltons in size and assumes an important part in the course of decoding the genetic message reserved in the genome into protein. The essential chemical step of protein synthesis is peptidyl transfer, that the developing or nascent peptide is moved from one tRNA molecule to the amino acid together with another tRNA. Amino acids…

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