Biology

The living world and Taxonomy Flashcards

1.

Who is known as the Darwin of 20th century?
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Ernst Mayr(1940) – During the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr was one of the 'architects' of the synthetic theory of evolution. He proposed Biological concept of species, on the basis of interbreeding

2.

In unicellular organisms the ................ is synonymous with growth
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In unicellular organisms like bacteria, amoeba and fungi reproduction of synonymous with growth. Growth is increase in size of organism and reproduction is giving rise to daughter organisms

3.

The sum of all chemical reactions occurring in our body is called .…
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All living organisms are constantly making or breaking biomolecules. Such conversions are due to chemical reactions, and sum total of all such chemical reactions, occurring in the body is called metabolism. The metabolic reactions can be anabolic (constructive) or catabolic (destructive).

4.

who is the only organism that is aware of one self?
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Human is the only organism who is aware of himself also, and thus has ‘self-consciousness’ Such selfconsciousness is lacking in patients who are lying in ‘coma’ and are brain-dead.

5.

The number of species that are known and described ranges between ......
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The number of species that are known and described range between 1.7-1.8 million. This refers to biodiversity or the number and types of organisms present on earth.

6.

............... occurs in both living and non-livings, but in living it is from inside
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the non-livings, like mountains, sand mounds and snow also grow, if we consider the increase in body mass as criterion, but this growth is by accumulation of material on the surface, and not from inside as we see in animals.

7.

The poikilotherms are also known as .............. animals.
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At low temperature in the surrounding, body temperature is also dropped and they become cold. Such animals are called as Cold-blooded animals or Poikilotherms.

8.

Tuna fish, though cold blooded, is ...............
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Tuna fish and Sword fish, have insulating devices to prevent heat loss. They retain heat energy in the body. Such fihes, unlike others, are endotherms

9.

A group of interbreeding individuals is called ..........…
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Earnest Meyr gave most accepted biological concept of species which defines species as a group of actually or potentially interbreeding population that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.

10.

................ is known as the father of zoology.
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Aristotle is know as the father of zoology

11.

Bioweapons
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It is the development of antibiotic- resistant micro organisms. The spores of Anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis ) produced and stored to keep them viable for long have been used as a weapon of bioterrorism. The other similar diseases, on epidemic or endemic scale, can be plague and small-pox etc.

12.

Amniocentesis
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Amniotic fl uid contains foetal-skin cells and amniocytes of amniotic membrane. These cells are cultured for chromosomal study for detecting fetal abnormality. This technique is now being used for sex identifi cation of Embryo/foetus (Between 1½ - 2 ½ months ) , and the fetus is aborted if found to be a female. It is the misuse of a biological technique

13.

Pasteurization
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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which water and certain packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 100 °C (212 °F), to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life.

14.

Genome
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A haploid set of chromosomes is called genome (i.e., number of chromosomes in a gamete), e.g, if a pollen grain of an Angiospermic plant has 8 chromosomes and the stem, leaf and root cells have 16 chromosomes its genome will be 8.

15.

Theory of Pangenesis
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In 1868 Charles Darwin proposed Pangenesis, a developmental theory of heredity. He suggested that all cells in an organism are capable of shedding minute particles he called gemmules, which are able to circulate throughout the body and finally congregate in the gonads.

16.

Theory of Germ plasm
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Concept of the physical basis of heredity expressed by the 19th-century biologist August Weismann. According to his theory, germ plasm, which is independent from all other cells of the body (somatoplasm), is the essential element of germ cells (eggs and sperm) and is the hereditary material that is passed from generation to generation.

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