• Biology,  environmental science


    A pond is an example of a complete, closed and an independent ecosystem. It is convenient to study its basic structure and functions. It works on solar energy and maintains its biotic community in equilibrium. If you collect a glass full of pond water or a scoop full of pond bottom mud, it consists of a mixture of plants, animals, inorganic and organic materials. Following components are found in a pond ecosystem. (A) Abiotic components Light: Solar radiation provides energy that controls the entire system. Penetration of light depends on the transparency of water, amount of dissolved or suspended particles in water and the number of plankton. On the basis…

  • Biology,  environmental science


    Several communities of organisms live together and interact with each other as well as with their physical environment as an ecological unit. We call it an ecosystem. The term ‘ecosystem’ was coined by A.G. Tansley in 1935. An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature encompassing complex interaction between its biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components. For example- a pond is a good example of the ecosystem. Components of an ecosystem Components of the ecosystem: They are broadly grouped into:-(a) Abiotic and (b) Biotic components A) Abiotic components (Nonliving): The abiotic component can be grouped into the following three categories:- Physical factors: Sunlight, temperature, rainfall, humidity and pressure. They sustain and…

  • Biology

    Water Pollution

    Water is extremely essential for life, this common fact is known to all. It is required to meet our basic needs in day to day life viz., cooking, drinking, bathing, disposal of sewage, irrigation, generating electricity in power plants, cooling and manufacturing different products in industries and the disposal of industrial wastes. During all these processes the undesirable substances are added to the water resources to a great extent. This alters the basic chemistry of water in rivers and streams. Sources of Water Pollution (i) Domestic sewage: This includes household’s wastes like food wastes, synthetic detergents used for washing clothes and cleaning bathrooms and latrines and water-based paints. (ii) Industrial…

  • Biology,  environmental science

    Acid Rain

    Although the phenomenon of “acid rain” (more correctly acid deposition) was identified in Manchester, England, as long ago as 1852, and described more thoroughly in 1872, modern scientific research has been going on only since the mid-1950s. Public concern about the problem began in the late 1960s. Acid rain is an environmental hazard that is transponder in nature. Northeastern America, North Western Europe and India are facing an acute problem of acid rain. Acid rain has affected certain rivers, lakes, streams and forests in United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), Germany and many other countries. Acid rain literally means ‘the presence of excessive acids in rain waters’. Acid…


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