• Biology,  Botony


    A symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Symbioses may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually. Obligate symbioses are often evolved over a long period of time, while facultative symbioses may be more modern, behavioral adaptions; given time, facultative symbioses may evolve into obligate symbioses. Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship, occurring when one of…

  • Biology,  Q & A

    What Would Happen If All the Bees Died?

    There are about 20,000 species of bees in the world, and they are probably the most important insect pollinators. The thousands of bee species have unique flight patterns and floral preferences, and many have coevolved with flowers in such a way that their body sizes and behaviors almost perfectly complement the flowers they pollinate. Sadly, bees of all types are in decline worldwide, as are many other insects. The familiar honeybee has suffered greatly from colony collapse disorder, in which hives suddenly lose their adult members. Populations of bumblebees and other solitary bees have steeply declined in many places, largely because of insecticide and herbicide use, habitat loss, and global…


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