DNA polymers direct the production of other polymers called proteins
A protein is one or more polymers of monomers called amino acids. Proteins are the workhorse molecules in your cells. They act as enzymes, structural support, hormones, and a whole host of other functional molecules. All traits derive from the interactions of proteins with each other and the surrounding environments.
A chromosome consists of smaller segments called genes
Chromosomes are very long structures consisting of two DNA polymers, joined together by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary base pairs. A chromosome is divided into segments of double-stranded DNA called genes.
Image showing how a chromosome is made up of DNA which contains genes.
Each gene is further divided into three-nucleotide subsegments called codons
A codon is a segment (or piece) of double-stranded DNA that is three nucleotides long. A gene can be thought of as many three-nucleotide codons strung together.