Biology,  Genetics,  Q & A

What is the Biological function of DNA

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DNA polymers direct the production of other polymers called proteins

A protein is one or more polymers of monomers called amino acids. Proteins are the workhorse molecules in your cells. They act as enzymes, structural support, hormones, and a whole host of other functional molecules. All traits derive from the interactions of proteins with each other and the surrounding environments.

A chromosome consists of smaller segments called genes

Chromosomes are very long structures consisting of two DNA polymers, joined together by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary base pairs. A chromosome is divided into segments of double-stranded DNA called genes.
 
Image showing how a chromosome is made up of DNA which contains genes.

Each gene is further divided into three-nucleotide subsegments called codons

A codon is a segment (or piece) of double-stranded DNA that is three nucleotides long. A gene can be thought of as many three-nucleotide codons strung together.
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