• Biochemistry,  Cell biology

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is the main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers transporting electrons in a specific sequence from a reduced nicotinamide coenzyme (NADH) or a reduced flavin prosthetic group (FADH2) to molecular O2. Transport chain called the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which forms the final path for electron…

  • Human anatomy

    NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Nervous system is the most complex system in human. Its uniqueness is due to the vast complexity of thought process and control action it can perform. It co-ordinates physiological functions in human. Nervous tissue originates from ectoderm and is specialized for receiving stimuli and transmitted message. The nervous tissue consists of highly specialized cells called the neurons. Thus neurons are functional unit of nervous system. The detailed structure of a neuron is shown in Figure.   An Overview of Nervous System in animals. A neuron is mainly divided into two parts: 1) Cell body or cyton and 2) Cell process. Cyton It is a broader part of neuron which contains…

  • Botony

    ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANT

    You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants. Study of the internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn, the tissues are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots are also seen to be anatomically different.…

  • Biochemistry

    PLANT TISSUES

    Organs such as stem, roots in plants made up of different kinds of tissues. A tissue is a group of cells with a common origin, structure and function.Their common origin means they are derived from the same layer of cells in the embryo. Being of a common origin, they are similar in structure and hence perform the same function. Many kinds of tissues organize to form an organ. Example: Parenchyma, collenchyma, xylem, and phloem are different tissues in plants. The study of tissues is called histology. The plant tissues are mainly of two types: Meristematic (Gk. meristos : dividing) Permanent (non-dividing) Meristematic tissues Composed of immature or undifferentiated cells without intercellular spaces.…

  • Cell biology

    ANIMAL TISSUE

    As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues. Tissues provide the numerous functions of organs necessary to maintain biological life. This lab exercise seeks to introduce the various tissues found in the human body and to familiarize you with their composition and function. The study of tissues is called histology and is important to the understanding of how the human body is able to function as a unit. Classifications of Tissues The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues; epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. These tissues…

  • Microbiology

    MICROBIOLOGY

    The word microbiology is derived from the Greek word, MICRO means small, BIOS means life and LOGIA means study. It is the study of microscopic organisms either unicellular, multicellular or acellular. Microbiology include disciplines of Virology, mycology and bacteriology etc. Eukaryotic microorganisms exhibit cell organelles and include fungi, protists and algae. Prokaryotic microorganisms are conventionally classified as lacking organelles and include Eubacteria, Archaebacteria. Microbiologist traditionally relayed on culture, staining and microscopy. However, if only 1 percent of microbes present in the environment are culture able. Microbiologist often relay on extraction or detection of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA. Viruses are not always classified as organisms as they have been…

  • Q & A

    Q & A ON REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

    Q1. What is life span? Ans: Life span is the period from birth to natural death of an organism. Q2. Define clone. Ans: The individuals that are morphologically and genetically similar to the parent are called clone. Q3. Mention the different means/ methods of asexual reproduction with example. Ans:  Cell division – Protista, Monera Binary fission – Amoeba, Paramecium Budding – Yeast Zoospores (microscopic motile endogenous spores) – aquatic fungi, chlamydomonas Conidia (microscopic immotile exogenous spores)- pencillium External buds – hydra Internal buds like gemmules – sponges (spongilla) Q4.Unicellular organisms are immortal. Justify. Ans: Single celled organisms like amoeba & bacteria reproduce by cell division and there is no natural…

  • Biochemistry,  Q & A

    Q & A ON WATER AND MINERAL SALT

    Q1.  What is the approximate percentage (in mass) of water in the human body? Is this percentage expected to be larger in the adult or in the old individual?  Ans: Approximately 65% of the human individual mass is water. The brain, for example, has around 90% of water in mass, the muscles, 85%, and the bones have between 25% and 40% of water. Younger adult individuals have proportionally more water in mass than older individuals. Q2.  What are the main biological functions of water? Ans: Water is the fundamental solvent for chemical reactions of living beings; it is the main means of substance transportation in the cell and between cells…

  • Biochemistry,  Cell biology,  Genetics

    WHAT IS DNA?

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA is a nucleic acid; alongside proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids compose the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. DNA  stores instructions for making other large molecules, called proteins. These instructions are stored inside each of your cells, distributed among 46 long structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are made up of thousands of shorter segments of DNA, called genes. Each gene stores the directions for making protein fragments, whole proteins, or multiple specific proteins. DNA is well-suited to…

  • Q & A

    Q & A OF ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

    Q1) Name the associated structure of companion cell. Ans: Sieve tube cell Q2) Name an enucleated plant cell. Ans: Sieve tube cell Q3) Name the conductory elements of xylem. Ans: Tracheary elements- Tracheids and Vessels (tracheae)  Q4) What is periderm? Ans: Phellogen, Phellum and Phelloderm are collectively called as Periderm Q5) What is annual ring? Ans: Springwood and autumn wood that appear as alternate concentric rings constitute an annual ring.  Q6) Name the meristem which is responsible for growth in diameter of the cortex. Ans: Cork Cambium Q7) What is intrafascicular cambium? Ans: Cells of cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem. Q8) What is interfascicular cambium? Ans: The…

error

Enjoy this blog? Please spread the word :)